This study presents a numerical multi-scale simulation framework which is extended to accommodate hybrid simulation (numerical-experimental integration). The framework is enhanced with a standardized data exchange format and connected to a generalized controller interface program which facilitates communication with various types of laboratory equipment and testing configurations. A small-scale experimental program was conducted using a six degree-of-freedom hydraulic testing equipment to verify the proposed framework and provide additional data for small-scale testing of shearcritical reinforced concrete structures. The specimens were tested in a multi-axial hybrid simulation manner under a reversed cyclic loading condition simulating earthquake forces. The physical models were 1/3.23-scale representations of a beam and two columns. A mixed-type modelling technique was employed to analyze the remainder of the structures. The hybrid simulation results were compared against those obtained from a large-scale test and finite element analyses. The study found that if precautions are taken in preparing model materials and if the shear-related mechanisms are accurately considered in the numerical model, small-scale hybrid simulations can adequately simulate the behaviour of shear-critical structures. Although the findings of the study are promising, to draw general conclusions additional test data are required.
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Sadeghian, V., Kwon, O. & Vecchio, F. Small-scale multi-axial hybrid simulation of a shear-critical reinforced concrete frame. Earthq. Eng. Eng. Vib. 16, 727–743 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11803-017-0410-0
- hybrid simulation
- small-scale testing
- reinforced concrete structures
- shear behaviour
- multi-scale modelling