Structure analyses of the explosive extratropical cyclone: A case study over the Northwestern Pacific in March 2007
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The synoptic situation and mesoscale structure of an explosive extratropical cyclone over the Northwestern Pacific in March 2007 are investigated through weather station observations and data reanalysis. The cyclone is located beneath the poleward side of the exit of a 200 hPa jet, which is a strong divergent region aloft. At mid-level, the cyclone lies on the downstream side of a well-developed trough, where a strong ascending motion frequently occurs. Cross-section analyses with weather station data show that the cyclone has a warm and moist core. A ‘nose’ of the cold front, which is characterized by a low-level protruding structure in the equivalent potential temperature field, forms when the cyclone moves offshore. This ‘nose’ structure is hypothesized to have been caused by the heating effect of the Kuroshio Current. Two low-level jet streams are also identified on the western and eastern sides of the cold front. The western jet conveys cold and dry air at 800–900 hPa. The wind in the northern part is northeasterly, and the wind in the southern part is northwesterly. By contrast, the eastern jet carries warm and moist air into the cyclone system, ascending northward from 900 hPa to 600–700 hPa. The southern part is dominated by the southerly wind, and the wind in the northern part is southwesterly. The eastern and western jets significantly increase the air temperature and moisture contrast in the vicinity of the cold front. This increase could play an important role in improving the rapid cyclogenesis process.
Key wordsexplosive extratropical cyclone meteorological bomb rapid cyclogenesis mesoscale structure northwestern Pacific
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This paper was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41275049 and 41775042). All authors express their sincere thanks to Prof. Suping Zhang, Prof. Qi Wang, Prof. Shanhong Gao and Mr. Shuqin Zhang in Department of Marine Meteorology, Ocean University of China for their helpful discussions.
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