Journal of Ocean University of China

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 953–964 | Cite as

Tidal current and tidal energy changes imposed by a dynamic tidal power system in the Taiwan Strait, China



The Taiwan Strait has recently been proposed as a promising site for dynamic tidal power systems because of its shallow depth and strong tides. Dynamic tidal power is a new concept for extracting tidal potential energy in which a coast-perpendicular dike is used to create water head and generate electricity via turbines inserted in the dike. Before starting such a project, the potential power output and hydrodynamic impacts of the dike must be assessed. In this study, a two-dimensional numerical model based on the Delft3D-FLOW module is established to simulate tides in China. A dike module is developed to account for turbine processes and estimate power output by integrating a special algorithm into the model. The domain decomposition technique is used to divide the computational zone into two subdomains with grid refinement near the dike. The hydrodynamic processes predicted by the model, both with and without the proposed construction, are examined in detail, including tidal currents and tidal energy flux. The predicted time-averaged power yields with various opening ratios are presented. The results show that time-averaged power yield peaks at an 8% opening ratio. For semidiurnal tides, the flow velocity increases in front of the head of the dike and decreases on either side. For diurnal tides, these changes are complicated by the oblique incidence of tidal currents with respect to the dike as well as by bathymetric features. The dike itself blocks the propagation of tidal energy flux.

Key words

dynamic tidal power ocean renewable energy Taiwan Strait Delft3D hydrodynamic impact 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2017YFC1404202), the Key Program Project of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51137002), the Key Program Project of the Jiangsu Science Foundation (No. SBK201150230), the 111 Project (No. B12032), and the Research and Innovation Project for Postgraduate Students of the Universities of Jiangsu Province (No. CXZZ13_0259).


  1. Adema, J., and Hartsuiker, G., 2010. Potential locations for dynamic tidal power in China. Alkyon, 66pp.Google Scholar
  2. Bae, Y. H., Kim, K. O., and Choi, B. H., 2010. Lake Sihwa tidal power plant project. Ocean Engineering, 37: 454–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baker, A. C., 1987. Tidal power. IEE Proceedings, 134: 392–398.Google Scholar
  4. Charlier, R. H., 2003. Sustainable co-generation from the tides: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 7: 187–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Choi, B. H., Kim, K. O., Lee, H. S., and Yuk, J. H., 2010. Perturbation of regional ocean tides due to coastal dikes. Continental Shelf Research, 30: 553–563.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cornett, A., Cousineau, J., and Nistor, I., 2013. Assessment of hydrodynamic impacts from tidal power lagoons in the Bay of Fundy. International Journal of Marine Energy, 1: 33–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dai, P., Zhang, J. S., and Zheng, J. H., 2017. Predictions for dynamic tidal power and associated local hydrodynamic impact in the Taiwan Strait, China. Journal of Coastal Research, 33: 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fang, G. H., Kwok, Y. K., Yu, K. J., and Zhu, Y. H., 1999. Numerical simulation of principal tidal constituents in the South China Sea, Gulf of Tonkin and Gulf of Thailand. Continental Shelf Research, 19: 845–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fang, G. H., Wang, Y. G., Wei, Z. X., Choi, B. H., Wang, X. Y., and Wang, J., 2004. Empirical cotidal charts of the Bohai, Yellow, and East China Seas from 10 years of TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109: 227–251.Google Scholar
  10. Gao, P., Zheng, J. H., Zhang, J. S., and Zhang, T. T., 2015. Potential assessment of tidal stream energy around Hulu Island, China. Procedia Engineering, 116: 871–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guo, X. Y., and Yanagi, T., 1998. Three-dimensional structure of tidal current in the East China Sea and the Yellow Sea. Journal of Oceanography, 54: 651–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hulsbergen, K., de Boer, D., Steijn, R., and van Banning, G., 2010. Dynamic tidal power for Korea. 1st Asian Wave and Tidal Conference Series, 8pp.Google Scholar
  13. Hulsbergen, K., Steijn, R. C., Hassan, R., Klopman, G., and Hurdle, D., 2005. Dynamic tidal power (DTP). 6th European Wave and Tidal Energy Conference, UK, 215–222.Google Scholar
  14. Hulsbergen, K., Steijn, R., van Banning, G., Klopman, G., and Frohlich, A., 2008. Dynamic tidal power (DTP)–A new approach to exploit tides. 2nd International Conference on Ocean Energy, France, 1–10.Google Scholar
  15. Jan, S., Chern, C. S., and Wang, J., 2002. Transition of tidal waves from the east to South China Seas over the Taiwan Strait: Influence of the abrupt step in the topography. Journal of Oceanography, 58: 837–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li, L. J., Zheng, J. H., Peng, Y. X., Zhang, J. S., and Wu, X. G., 2015. Numerical investigation of flow motion and performance of a horizontal axis tidal turbine subjected to a steady current. China Ocean Engineering, 29: 209–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lin, M. C., Juang, W. J., and Tsay, T. K., 2001. Anomalous amplifications of semidiurnal tides along the western coast of Taiwan. Ocean Engineering, 28: 1171–1198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu, Q., and Zhang, Y., 2014. Hydrodynamic study of phaseshift tidal power system with Y-shaped dams. Journal of Hydraulic Research, 52: 356–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Luz Clara, M., Simionato, C. G., D’Onofrio, E., and Moreira, D., 2015. Future sea level rise and changes on tides in the Patagonian continental shelf. Journal of Coastal Research, 313: 519–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mei, C. C., 2012. Note on tidal diffraction by a coastal barrier. Applied Ocean Research, 36: 22–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Moreira, D., Simionato, C. G., and Dragani, W., 2011. Modeling ocean tides and their energetics in the north Patagonia Gulfs of Argentina. Journal of Coastal Research, 27: 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Niu, L. X., van Gelder, P. H. A. J., Guan, Y., and Vrijling, J. K., 2015b. Uncertainty analysis and modelling of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal waters. Journal of Environment Protection and Sustainable Development, 1: 193–202.Google Scholar
  23. Niu, L. X., van Gelder, P. H. A. J., Guan, Y., Zhang, C., and Vrijling, J. K., 2015a. Probabilistic analysis of phytoplankton biomass at the Frisian Inlet (NL). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 155: 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Park, Y. G., Kim, H. Y., Hwang, J. H., Kim, T., Park, S., Nam, J. H., and Seo, Y. K., 2014. Dynamics of dike effects on tidal circulation around Saemangeum, Korea. Ocean & Coastal Management, 102: 572–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pawlowicz, R., Beardsley, B., and Lentz, S., 2002. Classical tidal harmonic analysis including error estimates in MATLAB using T_TIDE. Computers & Geosciences, 28: 929–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pugh, D. T., 1987. Tides Surges and Mean Sea Level. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK, 472pp.Google Scholar
  27. Ramos, V., and Iglesias, G., 2013. Performance assessment of Tidal Stream Turbines: A parametric approach. Energy Conversion and Management, 69: 49–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ramos, V., Carballo, R., Álvarez, M., Sánchez, M., and Iglesias, G., 2013. Assessment of the impacts of tidal stream energy through high-resolution numerical modeling. Energy, 61: 541–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ramos, V., Carballo, R., Álvarez, M., Sánchez, M., and Iglesias, G., 2014. A port towards energy self-sufficiency using tidal stream power. Energy, 71: 432–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robins, P. E., Neill, S. P., Lewis, M. J., and Ward, S. L., 2015. Characterising the spatial and temporal variability of the tidal-stream energy resource over the northwest European shelf seas. Applied Energy, 147: 510–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sánchez, M., Carballo, R., Ramos, V., and Iglesias, G., 2014. Energy production from tidal currents in an estuary: A comparative study of floating and bottom-fixed turbines. Energy, 77: 802–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shaun, W., and George, A., 2016. A world first: Swansea Bay tidal lagoon in review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56: 916–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Song, D. H., Wang, X. H., Zhu, X. M., and Bao, X. W., 2013. Modeling studies of the far-field effects of tidal flat reclamation on tidal dynamics in the East China Seas. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 133: 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Suh, S. W., Lee, H. Y., and Kim, H. J., 2014. Spatio-temporal variability of tidal asymmetry due to multiple coastal constructions along the west coast of Korea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 151: 336–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xia, J. Q., Falconer, R. A., and Lin, B. L., 2010a. Impact of different tidal renewable energy projects on the hydrodynamic processes in the Severn Estuary, UK. Ocean Modelling, 32: 86–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xia, J. Q., Falconer, R. A., and Lin, B. L., 2010b. Hydrodynamic impact of a tidal barrage in the Severn Estuary, UK. Renewable Energy, 35: 1455–1468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zheng, J., Dai, P., and Zhang, J., 2015. Tidal stream energy in China. Procedia Engineering, 116: 880–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhou, J. T., Falconer, R. A., and Lin, B. L., 2014. Refinements to the EFDC model for predicting the hydro-environmental impacts of a barrage across the Severn Estuary. Renewable Energy, 62: 490–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zu, T. T., Gan, J. P., and Erofeeva, S. Y., 2008. Numerical study of the tide and tidal dynamics in the South China Sea. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 55: 137–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Science Press, Ocean University of China and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingP. R. China
  2. 2.College of Harbor, Coastal, and Offshore EngineeringHohai UniversityNanjingP. R. China
  3. 3.Nanjing Hydraulic Research InstituteNanjingP. R. China

Personalised recommendations