Extraction of astaxanthin from Euphausia pacific using subcritical 1, 1, 1, 2-tetrafluoroethane
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Euphausia pacific is an important source of natural astaxanthin. Studies were carried out to assess the extractability of astaxanthin from E. pacific using subcritical 1, 1, 1, 2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a). To examine the effects of multiple process variables on the extraction yield, astaxanthin was extracted under various conditions of pressure (30–150 bar), temperature (303–343 K), time (10–50 min), flow rate (2–10 g min−1), moisture content (5.5%–63.61%), and particle size (0.25–0.109 mm). The results showed that the extraction yield increased with temperature, pressure, time and flow rate, but decreased with moisture content and particle size. A maximum yield of 87.74% was obtained under conditions of 100 bar, 333 K, and 30 min with a flow rate of 6 g min−1 and a moisture content of 5.5%. The substantial astaxanthin yield obtained under low-pressure conditions demonstrates that subcritical R134a is a good alternative to CO2 for extraction of astaxanthin from E. pacific.
Key wordssubcritical R134a astaxanthin extraction Euphausia pacific
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