The effects of Na on the growth of Cu2ZnSnSe4 thin films using low-temperature evaporation process
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Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) absorbers were deposited on borosilicate glass substrate using the low-temperature process, and different Na incorporation methods were applied to investigate the effects of Na on the CZTSe growth. Na was diffused into some of the absorbers after growth, which led to strongly improved device performance compared with Na-free cells. With the post-deposition treatment, the effect of Na on CZTSe growth was excluded, and most of Na was expected to reside at grain boundaries. The conversion efficiency of the completed device was improved due to the enhancement of open circuit voltage and fill factor. The efficiency of 2.85% was achieved at substrate temperature as low as 420 °C.
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