Logica Universalis

, Volume 6, Issue 1–2, pp 69–107

Why the Logical Hexagon?


DOI: 10.1007/s11787-012-0045-x

Cite this article as:
Moretti, A. Log. Univers. (2012) 6: 69. doi:10.1007/s11787-012-0045-x


The logical hexagon (or hexagon of opposition) is a strange, yet beautiful, highly symmetrical mathematical figure, mysteriously intertwining fundamental logical and geometrical features. It was discovered more or less at the same time (i.e. around 1950), independently, by a few scholars. It is the successor of an equally strange (but mathematically less impressive) structure, the “logical square” (or “square of opposition”), of which it is a much more general and powerful “relative”. The discovery of the former did not raise interest, neither among logicians, nor among philosophers of logic, whereas the latter played a very important theoretical role (both for logic and philosophy) for nearly two thousand years, before falling in disgrace in the first half of the twentieth century: it was, so to say, “sentenced to death” by the so-called analytical philosophers and logicians. Contrary to this, since 2004 a new, unexpected promising branch of mathematics (dealing with “oppositions”) has appeared, “oppositional geometry” (also called “n-opposition theory”, “NOT”), inside which the logical hexagon (as well as its predecessor, the logical square) is only one term of an infinite series of “logical bi-simplexes of dimension m”, itself just one term of the more general infinite series (of series) of the “logical poly-simplexes of dimension m”. In this paper we recall the main historical and the main theoretical elements of these neglected recent discoveries. After proposing some new results, among which the notion of “hybrid logical hexagon”, we show which strong reasons, inside oppositional geometry, make understand that the logical hexagon is in fact a very important and profound mathematical structure, destined to many future fruitful developments and probably bearer of a major epistemological paradigm change.

Mathematics Subject Classification (2010)

Primary 51L99 00A30 Secondary 03B05 03B10 03B45 03B53 03E75 03G10 05C99 


Logical square logical hexagon simplex tetrahexahedron opposition negation contradiction paraconsistent logic geometry structure symmetry duality universal logic analytical philosophy structuralism 

Copyright information

© Springer Basel AG 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.NiceFrance

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