Detection of oxidative stress and DNA damage in freshwater snail Lymnea leuteola exposed to profenofos

  • Daoud Ali
  • Huma Ali
  • Saud Alifiri
  • Saad Alkahtani
  • Abdullah A. Alkahtane
  • Shaik Althaf Huasain
Research Article


Extensive production and use of organophosphate pesticide in agriculture, has risen concerned about its ecotoxicity and risk assessment of insecticides, which are more important. Therefore, the present investigation was aimed to study the induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage by organophosphate insecticide profenofos (PFF) in freshwater snail Lymnea luteola (L. luteola). The median lethal value (96 h LC50) of PFF was estimated as 1.26 mg/L for L. luteola in a semi-static system and on the basis of LC50 value three concentrations viz., 0.126 (1/10 of LC50, Sublethal I), 0.63 (1/2 of LC50, Sublethal II) and 0.84 mg/L (2/3 of LC50, Sublethal III) were determined. Snails were exposed to above-mentioned concentrations of PFF along with solvent control (acetone) and negative control for 96 h. The haemolymph was collected at 24 and 96 h of after treatment. In heamolymph of PFF exposed snail, lipid peroxide, glutathione reduced glutathione S transferase and superoxide dismutase activities at the tested concentrations significantly differ from those in the control. The genotoxicity induced in hemocytes of treated snails was measured by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay. The data of this experiment demonstrated significantly enhancement of oxidative stress and DNA damage in the treated snails as compared to controls. Also, we observed statistically significant correlations of ROS with DNA damage (% tail DNA) (R2 = 0.9708) for 24 h and DNA damage (R2 = 0.9665) for 96 h.

Results of the current experiment can be useful in risk evaluation of PFF among aquatic organisms. The study confirmed the use of comet assay for in vivo laboratory experiments using freshwater snail for selecting the toxic potential of industrial chemicals and environmental contaminants.


Acute toxicity Profenofos ROS oxidative stress DNA damage Lymnea luteola 



The authors are grateful to the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University for funding this research (RG-1435-076).


  1. Akcha F, Vincent Hubert F, Pfhol-Leszkowicz A (2003). Potential value of the comet assay and DNA adduct measurement in dab (Limanda limanda) for assessment of in situ exposure to genotoxic compounds. Mutat Res, 534(1-2): 21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali D, Ahmed M, Alarifi S, Ali H (2015). Ecotoxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes to freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola L.: Impacts on oxidative stress and genotoxicity. Environmental Toxicology, 30(6): 674–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ali D, Nagpure N S, Kumar S, Kumar R, Kushwaha B, Lakra W S (2009). Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic effects of chlorpyrifos in freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) using micronucleus assay and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(3): 650–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson D, Yu T W, Phillips B J, Schmezer P (1994). The effect of various antioxidants and other modifying agents on oxygen-radicalgenerated DNA damage in human lymphocytes in the COMET assay. Mutation Research, 307(1): 261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. APHA AWWA, WPCF (1998). Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater, 20th ed. American Public Health Association, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Arabi M, Alaeddini M A (2005). Metal ion mediated oxidative stress in the gill homogenate of rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss). Biological Trace Element Research, 108: 155–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Becker J S, Füllner K, Seeling U D, Fornalczyk G, Kuhn A J (2008). Measuring magnesium, calcium and potassium isotope ratios using ICP-QMS with an octopole collision cell in tracer studies of nutrient uptake and translocation in plants. Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry, 390(2): 571–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Demir F, Uzun F G, Durakn D, Kalender Y (2011). Subacute chlorpyrifos induced oxidative stress in rat erythrocytes and the protective effects of catechin and quercetin. Pesticide Biochemical Physiology, 99(1): 79–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Finney D J (1971). Probit Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 333 pGoogle Scholar
  10. Köhler H R, Triebskorn R (2013). Wildlife ecotoxicology of pesticides: Can we track effects to the population level and beyond? Science, 341(6147): 759–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kohn K W (1991). Principles and practice of DNA filter elution. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 49(1-2): 55–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kumaravel T S, Jha A N (2006). Reliable Comet assay measurements for detecting DNA damage induced by ionising radiation and chemicals. Mutation Research, 605(1-2): 7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lever J, Bekius R (1965). On the presence of an external hemal pore in Lymnaea stagnalis L. Experientia, 21(7): 395–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Liu Y, Wang J, Wei Y, Zhang H, Xu M, Dai J (2008). Induction of timedependent oxidative stress and related transcriptional effects of perfluorododecanoic acid in zebrafish liver. Aquatic Toxicology, 89 (4): 242–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lushchak V I (2011). Environmentally induced oxidative stress in aquatic animals. Aquatic Toxicology, 101(1): 13–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Malla T M, Senthikumar C S, Akhtar S, Ganesh N (2011). Micronuclei as an evidence of DNA damage in fresh water catfish Heteroneustes fossilis (Blotch) exposed to synthetic sindoor, ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 95: 351–358Google Scholar
  17. Miller G T (2004). Chapter 9, Sustaining the Earth, 6th ed. Pacific Grove, California: Thompson Learning, Inc., 211–216Google Scholar
  18. Monteiro D A, de Almeida J A, Rantin F T, Kalinin A L (2006). Oxidative stress biomarkers in the freshwater characid fish, Brycon cephalus, exposed to organophosphorus insecticide Folisuper 600 (methyl parathion). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology—Part C, 143(2): 141–149Google Scholar
  19. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K (1979). Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem, 95(2): 351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Palmer W E, Bromley P T, Brandenburg R L (2007). Wildlife and pesticides-peanuts. North Carolina Cooperative Extension ServiceGoogle Scholar
  21. Pamanji R, Yashwanth B, Bethu MS, Leelavathi S, Ravinder K, Rao J V (2015). Toxicity effects of profenofos on embryonic and larval development of Zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environmental Toxicology Pharmacol, 39(2): 887–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rank J, Jensen K, Jespersen PH (2005). Monitoring DNA damage in indigenous blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) sampled from coastal sites in Denmark Mutation Research, 585: 33–42Google Scholar
  23. Rowe L A, Degtyareva N, Doetsch P W (2008). DNA damage-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 45(8): 1167–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Subudhi A W, Davis S L, Kipp R W, Askew E W (2001). Antioxidant status and oxidative stress in elite alpine ski racers. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 11(1): 32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Valencia A, Kochevar I E (2006). Ultraviolet A induces apoptosis via reactive oxygen species in a model for Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 40(4): 641–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Yassi A, Kjellstrom T (1997). Linkages between environmental and occupational health. Chapter 53 environmental health hazards PartVII-The environment. Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety, 4th ed. Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daoud Ali
    • 1
  • Huma Ali
    • 2
  • Saud Alifiri
    • 1
  • Saad Alkahtani
    • 1
  • Abdullah A. Alkahtane
    • 1
  • Shaik Althaf Huasain
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology, College of ScienceKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryMANIT, BhopalIndia

Personalised recommendations