Application and mechanism of polysaccharide extracted from Enteromorpha to remove nano-ZnO and humic acid in coagulation process

  • Jianzhang Sun
  • Baoyu Gao
  • Yuanxia Luo
  • Moxi Xue
  • Xing Xu
  • Qinyan Yue
  • Yan Wang
Research Article


Enteromorpha polysaccharide (Ep) extracted from alga a novel green coagulant aid for nanoparticles (NPs) and heavy metal ions removal and the structure of EP was intensively studied in this study. The integration of Ep with polyaluminum chloride (PAC-Ep) coagulants exhibited higher coagulation performance than that of the polyaluminum chloride (PAC) because of the negatively charged NPs suspension and humic aid (HA) solution. Significant high removal efficiencies of dissolved organic matter (94.1%), turbidity (99.3%) and Zn ions (69.3%) were achieved by the PAC-Ep coagulants. The dual-coagulation properties of PAC-Ep for different pollutants was based on multiple mechanisms, including (i) Al3+ charge neutralization; (ii) hydroxy aluminum hydroxyl bridging formed polynuclearhydroxy complexes bridge and sweep colloidal particles; (iii) adsorption and bridging of Ep chain for the NPs and heavy metal ions. Results indicated that the destabilization of colloid was induced by the coexisting HA and higher removal was achieved as ions adsorption was enhance in the presence of HA complexation. On the basis of that, the extraction of polysaccharide is a promising candidate for its high coagulation performance in water treatment.


Algal Extraction Enteromorpha polysaccharide 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) Coagulation mechanism 



This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51478250 & 21377072). Also this work was supported by grants from Tai Shan Scholar Foundation (No. ts201511003).We thank Haiyan Yu et al. from Core Facilities Center, School of Life Science, Shandong University for their SEM observation. And we also wish to thank Dr. Hongyu Dong from Tongji University for her valuable advises.


  1. 1.
    Sanghi R, Bhatttacharya B, Singh V. Cassia angustifolia seed gum as an effective natural coagulant for decolourisation of dye solutions. Green Chemistry, 2002, 4(3): 252–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Teh C Y, Wu T Y. The potential use of natural coagulants and flocculants in the treatment of urban waters. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 2014, 39: 1603–1608Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Teh C Y, Budiman P M, Shak K P Y,Wu T Y. Recent advancement of coagulation–flocculation and its application in wastewater treatment. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2016, 55 (16): 4363–4389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Watanabe Y. Flocculation and me. Water Research, 2017, 114: 88–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wang Y, Xue N, Chu Y, Sun Y, Yan H, Han Q. CuO nanoparticle–humic acid (CuONP–HA) composite contaminant removal by coagulation/ultrafiltration process: The application of sodium alginate as coagulant aid. Desalination, 2015, 367: 265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sun J, Gao B, Zhao S, Li R, Yue Q, Wang Y, Liu S. Simultaneous removal of nano-ZnO and Zn2+ based on transportation character of nano-ZnO by coagulation: Enteromorpha polysaccharide compound polyaluminum chloride. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 2017, 24(6): 5179–5188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ganesan K, Suresh Kumar K, Subba Rao P V, Tsukui Y, Bhaskar N, Hosokawa M, Miyashita K. Studies on chemical composition of three species of Enteromorpha. Biomedicine & Preventive Nutrition, 2014, 4(3): 365–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhao S, Gao B, Wang Y, Yang Z. Influence of a new coagulant aid-Enteromorpha extract on coagulation performance and floc characteristics of aluminum sulfate coagulant in kaolin–humic acid solution treatment. Colloids and Surfaces. A, Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2013, 417: 161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhao S, Gao B, Yue Q, Wang Y, Li Q, Dong H, Yan H. Study of Enteromorpha polysaccharides as a new-style coagulant aid in dye wastewater treatment. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2014, 103(0): 179–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Qi X, Mao W, Gao Y, Chen Y, Chen Y, Zhao C, Li N,Wang C, Yan M, Lin C, Shan J. Chemical characteristic of an anticoagulant-active sulfated polysaccharide from Enteromorpha clathrata. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2012, 90(4): 1804–1810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhao S, Gao B, Yue Q, Sun S, Song W, Jia R. Influence of Enteromorpha polysaccharides on variation of coagulation behavior, flocs properties and membrane fouling in coagulation-ultrafiltration process. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2015, 285: 294–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhao Y X, Phuntsho S, Gao B Y, Huang X, Qi Q B, Yue Q Y, Wang Y, Kim J H, Shon H K. Preparation and characterization of novel polytitanium tetrachloride coagulant for water purification. Environmental Science & Technology, 2013, 47(22): 12966–12975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grosvenor A P, Kobe B A, Mcintyre N S. Examination of the oxidation of iron by oxygen using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and QUASES. Surface Science, 2004, 565(2): 151–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zou Y, Wang X, Ai Y, Liu Y, Li J, Ji Y, Wang X. Coagulation behavior of graphene oxide on nanocrystallined Mg/Al layered double hydroxides: Batch experimental and theoretical calculation study. Environmental Science & Technology, 2016, 50(7): 3658–3667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Simate G S, Iyuke S E, Ndlovu S, Heydenrych M. The heterogeneous coagulation and flocculation of brewery wastewater using carbon nanotubes. Water Research, 2012, 46(4): 1185–1197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang S, Hu J, Chen C, Shao D,Wang X. Mutual effects of Pb(II) and humic acid adsorption on multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polyacrylamide composites from aqueous solutions. Environmental Science & Technology, 2011, 45(8): 3621–3627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shirasaki N, Matsushita T, Matsui Y, Marubayashi T. Effect of aluminum hydrolyte species on human enterovirus removal from water during the coagulation process. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2016, 284: 786–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yang Z, Yuan B, Huang X, Zhou J, Cai J, Yang H, Li A, Cheng R. Evaluation of the flocculation performance of carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide, a novel amphoteric chemically bonded composite flocculant. Water Research, 2012, 46(1): 107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shobharani P, Nanishankar V H, Halami P M, Sachindra N M. Antioxidant and anticoagulant activity of polyphenol and polysaccharides from fermented Sargassum sp. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2014, 65: 542–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lim S F, Zheng Y M, Zou S W, Chen J P. Characterization of copper adsorption onto an alginate encapsulated magnetic sorbent by a combined FT-IR, XPS, and mathematical modeling study. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008, 42(7): 2551–2556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tabarsa M, Lee S J, You S. Structural analysis of immunostimulating sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva pertusa. Carbohydrate Research, 2012, 361: 141–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schild D, Marquardt C M, Schild D. Analysis of Th(IV)-humate by XPS. Radiochimica Acta, 2000, 88(9–11): 587–591Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang J, Li Y, Chen W, Peng J, Hu J, Chen Z,Wen T, Lu S, Chen Y, Hayat T, Ahmad B, Wang X. The rapid coagulation of graphene oxide on La-doped layered double hydroxides. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2017, 309: 445–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cassolato J E, Noseda M D, Pujol C A, Pellizzari F M, Damonte E B, Duarte M E. Chemical structure and antiviral activity of the sulfated heterorhamnan isolated from the green seaweed Gayralia oxysperma. Carbohydrate Research, 2008, 343(18): 3085–3095CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li H, Mao W, Zhang X, Qi X, Chen Y, Chen Y, Xu J, Zhao C, Hou Y, Yang Y, Li N, Wang C. Structural characterization of an anticoagulant-active sulfated polysaccharide isolated from green alga Monostroma latissimum. Carbohydrate Polymers, 2011, 85(2): 394–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen K L, Mylon S E, Elimelech M. Enhanced aggregation of alginate-coated iron oxide (hematite) nanoparticles in the presence of calcium, strontium, and barium cations. Langmuir, 2007, 23(11): 5920–5928CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Katsoufidou K, Yiantsios S G, Karabelas A J. Experimental study of ultrafiltration membrane fouling by sodium alginate and flux recovery by backwashing. Journal of Membrane Science, 2007, 300(1–2): 137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gao B, Chu Y, Yue Q, Wang Y. Purification and characterization of Al13 species in coagulant polyaluminum chloride. Journal of Environmental Sciences (China), 2009, 21(1): 18–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Martínez-Quiroz M, López-Maldonado E A, Ochoa-Terán A, Oropeza-Guzman M T, Pina-Luis G E, Zeferino-Ramírez J. Innovative uses of carbamoyl benzoic acids in coagulationflocculation’s processes of wastewater. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2017, 307: 981–988CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianzhang Sun
    • 1
  • Baoyu Gao
    • 1
  • Yuanxia Luo
    • 1
  • Moxi Xue
    • 1
  • Xing Xu
    • 1
  • Qinyan Yue
    • 1
  • Yan Wang
    • 1
  1. 1.Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and EngineeringShandong UniversityJinanChina

Personalised recommendations