Can floor-area-ratio incentive promote low impact development in a highly urbanized area?—A case study in Changzhou City, China

Research Article
  • 45 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Low Impact Development and Sponge City

Abstract

As an environmental friendly measure for surface runoff reduction, low impact development (LID) has been applied successfully in urban areas. However, due to high price of land and additional expense for LID construction in highly urbanized areas, the developers of real estate would not like to proceed LID exploitation. Floor area ratio (FAR) refers to “the ratio of a building’s total floor area to the size of the piece of land upon which it is built.” Increasing FAR indicates that the developers can construct higher buildings and earn more money. By means of awarding FAR, the developers may be willing to practice LID construction. In this study, a new residential district is selected as a case study to analyze the tradeoff between the runoff reduction goal achieving by LID practices and the incentive of awarding FAR to promote LID construction. The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis IntegratioN (SUSTAIN) model is applied to simulate the runoff reduction under various LID designs and then derive the Pareto-optimal solutions to achieve urban runoff reduction goals based on cost efficiency. The results indicates that the maximum surface runoff reduction is 20.5%. Under the extremity scenarios, the government has options to award FAR of 0.028, 0.038 and 0.047 and the net benefits developers gain are 0 CNY, one million CNYand two million CNY, respectively. The results provide a LID construction guideline related to awarding FAR, which supports incentive policy making for promoting LID practices in the highly urbanized areas.

Keywords

Low impact development Runoff reduction Incentive Floor area ratio SUSTAIN(System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis IntegratioN) 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the National Water Pollution Control and Management Technology Major Projects (No. 2013ZX07501005) and Project of Technology & Innovation Com-mission of Shenzhen Municipality (No. ZDSYS20140509094114169).

References

  1. 1.
    Hu M, Sayama T, Zhang X, Tanaka K, Takara K, Yang H. Evaluation of low impact development approach for mitigating flood inundation at a watershed scale in China. Journal of Environmental Management, 2017, 193: 430–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maniquiz-Redillas M C, Kim L H. Evaluation of the capability of low-impact development practices for the removal of heavy metal from urban stormwater runoff. Environmental Technology, 2016, 37 (18): 2265–2272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Olorunkiya J, Fassman E, Wilkinson S. Risk: A fundamental barrier to the implementation of low impact design infrastructure for urban stormwater control. Journal of Sustainable Development, 2012, 5 (9): 27–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim J H, Kim H Y, Demarie F. Facilitators and barriers of applying low impact development practices in urban development. Water Resources Management, http://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-017-1707-5Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Assad N. Locating barriers to and opportunities for implementing low impact development within a governance and policy framework in Southern Ontario. Thesis for the Master Degree. Guelph: The University of Guelph, 2012Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lu Z, Noonan D, Crittenden J, Jeong H, Wang D. Use of impact fees to incentivize low-impact development and promote compact growth. Environmental Science & Technology, 2013, 47(19): 10744–10752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Atchison D, Gill P, Clancy M, Merrill A. Birch Bay Wate7rshed Action Plan: Linking Low Impact Development with Improved Critical Areas Management. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 2012: 277–288Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Olorunkiya J O, Wilkinson S, Fassman E A, Stuart D. Eliciting Stakeholders’ preferences for low-impact design incentives: Conjoint analysis approach. Journal of Legal Affairs & Dispute Resolution in Engineering & Construction, 2013, 5(4): 180–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jung S J, Yoon S H. Analysis on the influence of building coverage ratio and floor area ratio on sunlight environment and outdoor thermal environment in flat-type apartment houses. Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Planning & Design, 2015, 31(5): 69–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tsai Y H. Location-demand-based residential floor area ratio distribution method. Urban Studies (Edinburgh, Scotland), 2014, 51(12): 2685–2702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Matsuhashi K, Shiraki H, Ashina S, Ariga T. A Proposal of the floorto-area ratio bonus for the zero carbon urban redevelopment utilizing renewable energy. Journal of Japan Society of Civil Engineers Ser G, 2014, 70(6): 81–86Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tsunematsu N, Yokoyama H, Honjo T, Ichihashi A, Ando H, Shigyo N. Relationship between land use variations and spatiotemporal changes in amounts of thermal infrared energy emitted from urban surfaces in downtown Tokyo on hot summer days. Urban Climate, 2016, 17: 67–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gao J, Wang R, Huang J, Liu M. Application of BMP to urban runoff control using SUSTAIN model: Case study in an industrial area. Ecological Modelling, 2015, 318(1): 177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee J G, Selvakumar A, Alvi K, Riverson J, Zhen J X, Shoemaker L, Lai F. A watershed-scale design optimization model for stormwater best management practices. Environmental Modelling & Software, 2012, 37(37): 6–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jia H, Yao H, Tang Y, Yu S L, Field R, Tafuri A N. LID-BMPs planning for urban runoff control and the case study in China. Journal of Environmental Management, 2015, 149: 65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen C F, Sheng M Y, Chang C L, Kang S F, Lin J Y. Application of the SUSTAIN Model to a watershed-scale case for water quality management. Water (Basel), 2014, 6(12): 3575–3589Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Qin H P, Li Z X, Fu G. The effects of low impact development on urban flooding under different rainfall characteristics. Journal of Environmental Management, 2013, 129(18): 577–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rosa D J, Clausen J C, Dietz M E. Calibration and verification of SWMM for Low Impact Development. Jawra Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 2015, 51(3): 746–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Palla A, Gnecco I. Hydrologic modeling of Low Impact Development systems at the urban catchment scale. Journal of Hydrology (Amsterdam), 2015, 528: 361–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nash J E, Sutcliffe J V. River flow forecasting through conceptual models part I-A discussion of principles. Journal of Hydrology (Amsterdam), 1970, 10(3): 282–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jia H, Lu Y, Yu S L, Chen Y R. Planning of LID–BMPs for urban runoff control: The case of Beijing Olympic Village. Separation and Purification Technology, 2012, 84(2): 112–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tetra Tech, Inc.SUSTAIN Step-by-Step Application Guide Version 1.2. US: EPA, 2012Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming Cheng
    • 1
  • Huapeng Qin
    • 1
  • Kangmao He
    • 1
  • Hongliang Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and EnergyPeking University Shenzhen Graduate SchoolShenzhenChina

Personalised recommendations