Advertisement

Pyrolysis of WEEE plastics using catalysts produced from fly ash of coal gasification

  • Marika Benedetti
  • Lorenzo Cafiero
  • Doina De Angelis
  • Alessandro Dell’Era
  • Mauro Pasquali
  • Stefano Stendardo
  • Riccardo Tuffi
  • Stefano Vecchio Ciprioti
Research Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Special Issue—Recycling Materials from WEEE

Abstract

Catalytic pyrolysis of thermoplastics extracted from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) was investigated using various fly ash-derived catalysts. The catalysts were prepared from fly ash by a simple method that basically includes a mechanical treatment followed by an acid or a basic activation. The synthesized catalysts were characterized using various analytical techniques. The results showed that not treated fly ash (FA) is characterized by good crystallinity, which in turn is lowered by mechanical and chemical treatment (fly ash after mechanical and acid activation, FAMA) and suppressed almost entirely down to let fly ash become completely amorphous (fly ash after mechanical and basic activation FAMB). Simultaneously, the surface area resulted increased. Subsequently, FA, FAMB and FAMA were used in the pyrolysis of a WEEE plastic sample at 400°C and their performance were compared with thermal pyrolysis at the same temperature. The catalysts principally improve the light oil yield: from 59 wt.% with thermal pyrolysis to 83 wt.% using FAMB. The formation of styrene in the oil is also increased: from 243 mg/g with thermal pyrolysis to 453 mg/g using FAMB. As a result, FAMB proved to be the best catalyst, thus producing also the lowest and the highest amount of char and gas, respectively.

Keywords

Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) plastic mixture Pyrolysis Catalyst Fly ash Oil 

Supplementary material

11783_2017_998_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (151 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 151 KB.

References

  1. 1.
    Baldé C P, Wang F, Kuehr R, Huisman J. The Global E-Waste Monitor–2014. United Nations University, IAS–SCYCLE, Bonn, Germany, 2015Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sodhi M S, Reimer B. Models for recycling electronics end-of-life products. OR-Spektrum, 2001, 23(1): 97–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Widmer R, Oswald-Krapf H, Sinha-Khetriwal D, Schnellmann M, Böni H. Global perspectives on e-waste. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 2005, 25(5): 436–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Eurostat. 2014 Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) by waste operations. Available online at http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/waste/key-waste-streams/weee. (accessed May 15, 2017)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dimitrakakis E, Janz A, Bilitewski B, Gidarakos E. Small WEEE: Determining recyclables and hazardous substances in plastics. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2009, 161(2–3): 913–919CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Panda A K, Singh R K, Mishra D K. Thermolysis of waste plastics to liquid fuel A suitable method for plastic waste management and manufacture of value added products—A world prospective. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2010, 14(1): 233–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vasile C, Brebu M A, Karayildrim T, Yanik J, Darie H. Feedstock recycling from plastic and thermoset fractions of used computer(I): Pyrolysis. Journal of Material Cycles andWaste Management, 2006, 8(2): 99–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    He M, Xiao B, Liu S, Hu Z, Guo X, Luo S, Yang F. Syngas production from pyrolysis of municipal solid waste (MSW) with dolomite as downstream catalysts. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2010, 87(2): 181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    De Marco I, Caballero B, Torres A, Laresgoiti M F, Chomòn M J, Cabrero M A. Recycling polymeric wastes by means of pyrolysis. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology (Oxford, Oxfordshire), 2002, 77(7): 817–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Miandad R, Barakat M A, Aburiazaiza A S, Rehan M, Nizami A S. Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste: A review. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 2016, 102: 822–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Al-Salem S M, Antelava A, Constantinou A, Manos G, Dutta A. A review on thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of plastic solid waste (PSW). Journal of Environmental Management, 2017, 197: 177–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aguado J, Serrano D P, San Miguel G, Castro M C, Madrid S. Feedstock recycling of polyethylene in a two-step thermo-catalytic reaction system. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2007, 79(1-2): 415–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Park D W, Hwang E Y, Kim J R, Choi J K, Kim Y A, Woo H C. Catalytic degradation of polyethylene over solid acid catalysts. Polymer Degradation & Stability, 1999, 65(2): 193–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Santella C, Cafiero L, De Angelis D, La Marca F, Tuffi R, Vecchio Ciprioti S. Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of a mixture of plastics from small waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Waste Management (New York, N.Y.), 2016, 54: 143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ojha K, Pradhan N C. Treated fly ash: A potential catalyst for catalytic cracking. Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences, 2001, 8(2): 100–103Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Na J G, Jeong B H, Chung S H, Kim S S. Pyrolysis of low-density polyethylene using synthetic catalysts produced from fly ash. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 2006, 8(2): 126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wang S. Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis. Environmental Science & Technology, 2008, 42(19): 7055–7063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kim S S, Kim J H, Chung S H. A study on the application of fly ashderived zeolite materials for pyrolysis of polypropylene. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2003, 9(3): 287–293Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cafiero L, Castoldi E, Tuffi R, Vecchio Ciprioti S. Identification and characterization of plastics from small appliances and kinetic analysis of their thermally activated pyrolysis. Polymer Degradation & Stability, 2014, 109: 307–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cafiero L, Fabbri D, Trinca E, Tuffi R, Vecchio Ciprioti S. Thermal and spectroscopic (TG/DCS-FTIR) characterization of mixed plastics for materials and energy recovery under pyrolytic conditions. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 2015, 121(3): 1111–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stendardo S, Foscolo P U, Nobili M, Scaccia S. High quality syngas production via steam-oxygen blown bubbling fluidised bed gasifier. Energy, 2016, 03(103): 697–708CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sharma A, Srivastava K, Devra V, Rani A. Modification in properties of fly ash through mechanical and chemical activation. American Chemical Sciences Journal, 2012, 2(4): 177–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Koehl G, Keller N, Garin F, Keller V. A tool for direct quantitative measurement of surface Bronsted acid sites of solids by H/D exchange using D2O. Applied Catalysis A, General, 2005, 289(1): 37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hall W J, Williams P T. Fast pyrolysis of halogenated plastics recovered from waste computers. Energy & Fuels, 2006, 20(4): 1536–1549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Miskolczi N, Hall W J, Angyal A, Bartha L, Williams P T. Production of oil with low organobromine content from the pyrolysis of flame retarded HIPS and ABS plastics. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 2008, 83(1): 115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sakata Y, Uddin M, Muto A. Degradation of polyethylene and polypropylene into fuel oil by using solid acid and non-acid catalysts. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 1999, 51(1-2): 135–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Caballero B M, de Marco I, Adrados A, López-Urionabarrenechea A, Solar J, Gastelu N. Possibilities and limits of pyrolysis for recycling plastic rich waste streams rejected from phones recycling plants. Waste Management (New York, N.Y.), 2016, 57: 226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Giavarini C. Guida allo studio dei processi di raffinazione e petrolchimici. Roma: Siderea, 2006.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Audisio G, Bertini F, Beltrame P L, Carniti P. Catalytic degradation of polymers: Part III—Degradation of polystyrene. Polymer Degradation & Stability, 1990, 29(2): 191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang Z, Hirose T, Nishio S, Morioka Y, Azuma N, Ueno A, Ohkita H, Okada M. Chemical recycling of waste polystyrene acids and bases into styrene over solid acids and bases. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 1995, 34(12): 4514–4519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ukei H, Hirose T, Horikawa S, Takei Y, Taka M, Azume N, Ueno A. Catalytic degradation of polystyrene into styrene and a design of recyclable polystyrene with dispersed catalysts. Catalysis Today, 2000, 62(1): 67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Serrano D P, Aguado J, Escola J M. Catalytic conversion of polystyrene over HMCM-41, HZSM-5 and amorphous SiO2–Al2O3: Comparison with thermal cracking. Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 2000, 25(2–3): 181–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tae J, Jang B, Kim J, Kim I, Park D. Catalytic degradation of polystyrene using acid-treated halloysite clays. Solid State Ionics, 2004, 172(1–4): 129–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Guadagni A. Prontuario Dell’ingegnere. 3rd ed. Milano: Hoepli, 2010Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marika Benedetti
    • 1
  • Lorenzo Cafiero
    • 1
  • Doina De Angelis
    • 1
  • Alessandro Dell’Era
    • 2
  • Mauro Pasquali
    • 2
  • Stefano Stendardo
    • 3
  • Riccardo Tuffi
    • 1
  • Stefano Vecchio Ciprioti
    • 2
  1. 1.Department for SustainabilityENEA–Casaccia Research CenterRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of SBAISapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Energy TechnologiesENEA–Casaccia Research CenterRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations