Characteristics of mass distributions of aerosol particle and its inorganic water-soluble ions in summer over a suburb farmland in Beijing

  • Zhao Peng 
  • Zhu Tong 
  • Liang Baosheng 
  • Hu Min 
  • Kang Ling 
  • Gong Jicheng 
Research Article

Abstract

Agricultural activity is one of the most important sources of aerosol particles. To understand the mass distribution and sources of aerosol particles and their inorganic water-soluble ions in a suburb farmland of Beijing, particle samples were collected using a microorifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) in the summer of 2004 in a suburb vegetable field. The distribution of the particles and their inorganic water-soluble ions in the diameter range of 0.18–18 μm were measured. The dominant fine particle ions were SO42−, NO3, and NH4+. The association of day-to-day variation of the concentration of these ions with temperature, humidity, and solar radiation suggested that they are formed by the reaction of NH3 released from the vegetable field with the acid species produced from photochemical reactions. Fine particle K+ is likely from vegetation emission and biomass burning. Coarse particles like Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3, and SO42− are suggested to come from the mechanical process by which the soil particle entered the atmosphere, and from the reaction of the acid species at the surface of the soil particle. The results show that fertilizer and soil are important factors determining the aerosol particle over agricultural fields, and vegetable fields in suburban Beijing contribute significantly to the aerosol particle.

Keywords

mass size distribution coarse particle fine particle source 

References

  1. 1.
    Wang X F. A study on the atmospheric aerosol in winter in the city center and the suburb rural area of Beijing. J Beijing Normal Univ (Natl Sci), 1998, 34(3): 360–364 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dong J Q, Yang S J. Characteristics of the aerosol and study of their sources in Huabei clean area. Environ Chem, 1998, 17(1): 38–44 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Park S S, Hong S B, Jung Y G, Lee, J. H. Measurements of PM10 aerosol and gas-phase nitrous acid during fall season in a semi-urban atmosphere. Atmos Environ, 2004, 38(2): 293–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xu J, Bergin M H, Yu X, Liu G, Zhao J, Carrico C, Baumann K. Measurement of aerosol chemical, physical and radiative properties in the Yangtze delta region of China. Atmos Environ, 2002, 36(2): 161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Marple V A, Rubow K L, Behm S M. A microorifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI): description, calibration and use. Aerosol Sci Technol, 1991, 14: 434–446Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sun Q R, Wang M R, Tian H H, Chen D H. Design of an annular denuder/cascade impactor system and measurement of acidity of fine particles. Acta Scienitae Circumstantiae, 1998, 18(1): 56–61 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wang M, Hu M. Major inorganic compositions in fine and coarse particles of ambient aerosol at Qingdao. Environ Sci, 2001, 22(5): 35–37 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hu M, Zhao Y L, He L Y, Huang X F, Tang X Y, Yao X H, Chan C K. Mass size distribution of Beijing particulate matters and its inorganic water-soluble ions in winter and summer. Environ Sci, 2005, 26(4): 1–6 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Keywood M D, Ayers G P, Gras J L, Gillett R W, Cohen D D. Relationships between size segregated mass concentration data and ultrafine particle number concentrations in urban areas. Atmos Environ, 1999, 33(18): 2907–2913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shi Z, Shao L, Jones T P, Whattaker A G, Lu S, Berube K A, He T, Richards R T. Characterization of airborne individual particles collected in an urban area, a satellite city and a clean air area in Beijing, 2001. Atmos Environ, 2003, 37(29): 4097–4108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parmar R S, Satsangi G S, Kumari M, Lakhani A, Srivastava S S, Prakash S. Study of size distribution of atmospheric aerosol at Agra. Atmos Environ, 2001, 35(4): 693–702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yang D Z, Yu X L, Li X S, Wang C, Parungo F, Nagamoto C. Characteristic analysis of aerosol at Lin’an air pollution background station. Sci Atmos Sinica, 1995, 19(2): 219–228 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li Y F, Cao S R. Size distribution of main inorganic anions in aerosol particles. Atmos Environ, 1989, 4(2): 19–23 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhou F M, Shao K S, Hu M, Tang X Y. Concentrations of aerosol and related gases in Beijing. Environ Sci, 2002, 23(1): 11–15 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ali-Mohamed A Y, Ali H A N. Estimation of atmospheric inorganic water-soluble particulate matter in Muharraq Island, Bahrain, (Arabian Gulf), by ion chromatography. Atmos Environ, 2001, 35(4): 761–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hong Z, Chak K C, Ming F, Wexler A S. Size distribution of particulate sulfate, nitrate and ammonium at a coastal site in Hong Kong. Atmos Environ, 1999, 33: 843–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Huang Z, Harrison R M, Allen A G, James J D, Tilling R M, Yin J. Field intercomparison of filter pack and impactor sampling for aerosol nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate at coastal and inland sites. Atmos Res, 2004, 71(3): 215–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lee H S, Kang B W. Chemical characteristics of principal PM2.5 species in Chongju, South Korea. Atmos Environ, 2001, 35(4): 739–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhu T, Pattey E, Desjardins R L. Relaxed eddy-accumulation technique for measuring ammonia volatilization. Environ Sci Technol, 2000, 34(1): 199–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nemitz E, Sutton M A, Choularton T W, Gallagher M W. Modeling the concentration and flux profiles of size and composition distributed NH4 + aerosol as modified by the NH3-HNO3-NH4NO3 equilibrium. J Aerosol Sci, 1997, 28: S387–S388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    McCulloch R B, Few G S, Murray J G C, Aneja V P. Analysis of ammonia, ammonium aerosols and acid gases in the atmosphere at a commercial hog farm in eastern North Carolina, USA. Environ Pollut, 1998, 102(1): 263–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Walker J T, Whitall D R, Robarge W P, Paerl H W. Ambient ammonia and ammonium aerosol across a region of variable ammonia emission density. Atmos Environ, 2004, 38(9): 1235–1246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yu F L. Chemical composition and its source of fine particles in atmospheric aerosol of urban areas. Meteorol Monthly, 28(11): 3–6 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang M. Study on chemical characterization of atmospheric particles in Qingdao. Dissertation for Master’s Degree. Beijing: Peking University, 1999, 39 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhao Peng 
    • 1
  • Zhu Tong 
    • 1
  • Liang Baosheng 
    • 1
  • Hu Min 
    • 1
  • Kang Ling 
    • 1
  • Gong Jicheng 
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental SciencesPeking UniversityBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations