Journal of Central South University

, Volume 24, Issue 5, pp 1040–1049 | Cite as

Heat treatment and granule medium internal high-pressure forming of AA6061 tube

  • Jiang Bi (毕江)
  • Chang-cai Zhao (赵长财)
  • Meng-meng Bi (毕蒙蒙)
  • Bing Du (杜冰)
  • Xiao-hua Chen (陈晓华)
  • Guo-jiang Dong (董国疆)


The new forming process of AA6061 alloy tube, including solution treatment, granule medium internal high-pressure forming and aging treatment, was developed. The AA6061 alloy tube via heat treatment satisfied the forming requirement, and the granule medium internal high pressure forming method for AA6061 alloy tube was also realized by using convenient implementation with low requirement of equipment and flexible design of product. At a solution temperature of 560°C and time of 120 min, the elongation of the AA6061 extruded tube increases by 300% and the strength and the hardness dramatically decrease too. Therefore, the AA6061 alloy tube meets the requirement of internal high-pressure forming because of the improvement of formability. The experiments shows that the strength and hardness of AA6061 alloy workpiece recover to that of the as-received alloy at an aging temperature of 180°C and time of 360 min, and the strength of AA6061 alloy workpiece is equal to the base alloy. The typical parts of convex ring tube, stepped shaft tube and hexagonal tube were successfully produced in lab by using the present forming method. The forming tests show that the maximum expansion ratio (MER) of the AA6061 extruded tube increases by 25.5% and the material properties of formed AA6061 alloy tube reached the performance of as-received alloy.

Key words

aluminum alloy tube solution treatment aging treatment granule medium internal high pressure forming 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    ZHENG Y S, TANG G Y, KUANG J, ZHENG X P. Effect of electropulse on solid solution treatment of 6061 aluminum alloy [J]. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 2014, 615: 849–853.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    PAN Dao-zhao, WANG Zhi-xiu, LI Hai, ZHENG Zi-qiao. Effects of two-step ageing treatment on tensile properties and intergranular corrosion of 6061 aluminum alloy [J]. The Chinese Journal of Nonferrous Metals, 2010, 20(3): 435–441. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    EI-MENSHAWY K, EI-SAYED A W A, EI-BEDAWY M E, AHMED H A, EI-RAGHY S M. Effect of aging time at low aging temperatures on the corrosion of aluminum alloy 6061 [J]. Corrosion Science, 2012, 54: 167–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    MAISONNETTE D, SUERY M, NELIAS D, CHAUDET P, EPICIER T. Effects of heat treatments on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 6061 aluminium alloy [J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2011, 528(6): 2718–2724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    KIM W J, KIM W Y, KIM H K. Hot-air forming of Al-Mg-Cr alloy and prediction of failure based on Zener-Holloman parameter [J]. Matals and Materials International, 2010, 16(6): 895–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    HE Zhu-bin, FAN Xiao-bo, SHAO Fei, ZHENG Kai-lun, WANG Zhi-biao, YU AN Shi-jiang. Formability and microstructure of AA6061 Al alloy tube for hot metal gas forming at elevated temperature [J]. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2012, 22(Suppl 2): s364–s369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    SEYEDKASHI S M H, NAEINI H M, MOON Y H. Feasibility study on optimized process conditions in warm tube hydrofoming [J]. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 2014, 28(7): 2845–2852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    XIANG Sheng-qian, ZHOU Chun-rong, GUO Jia-lin, YIN Zhi-min, SHANG Bao-chuan. Effect of solid solution-aging treatment on microstructure and properties of 6061 aluminum alloy extruded rods [J]. Light Alloy Fabrication Technology, 2011, 39(4): 31–35. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    SHANG Bao-chuan, YIN Zhi-min, ZHOU Xiang, HUANG Zhi-qi. Effect of solution and aging treatment on microstructure and properties of hot extruded 6082 aluminum alloy bars [J]. Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment, 2011, 32(1): 77–81. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    ZHOU Yu-jing, CHENG Xiu-quan, XIA Qin-xiang. Influence of heat treatment on spinning process and properties for 6061 aluminum alloy tube [J]. Forging & Stamping Technology, 2011, 36(3): 54–57. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    HE Zhu-bin, YUAN Shi-jian, CHA Wei-wei, LIANG Ying-chun. Force and deformation analysis of tube ring specimen during hoop tension test [J]. Acta Metallurgica Sinica, 2008, 44(4): 423–427. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    WU Yue. CHEN Wen-lin, LI Wei, MA Yong. Effects of solution treatment on microstructure and properties of Al-0.9Mg-0.6Si-0.7Cu alloy [J]. Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment, 2014, 35(12): 56–61. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    YUAN Shi-jian, TANG Ze-jun, WANG Xiao-song, MIAO Qi-bin. Formability of warm hydroforming of AZ31B magnesium alloy tube [J]. Materials Science & Technology, 2009, 17(5): 657–665. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    LIU Gang, TANG Ze-jun, HE Zhu-bin, YUAN Shi-jian. Warm hydroforming of magnesium alloy tube with large expansion radio [J]. Transactions of Nonferrous Matals Society of China, 2010, 20(11): 2071–2075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    DEMIR H, GÜNDÜZ S. The effects of aging on machinability of 6061 aluminium alloy [J]. Materials & Design, 2009, 30(5): 1480–1483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    MIRZAKHANI B, MANSOURINEJAD M. Tensile properties of AA6061 in different designated precipitation hardening and cold working [J]. Procedia Engineering, 2011, 10: 136–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    MANSOURINEJAD M, MIRZAKHANI B. Influence of sequence of cold working and aging treatment on mechanical behaviour of 6061 aluminum alloy [J]. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2012, 22(9): 2072–2079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    FARSHIDI M H, KAZEMINEZHAD M, MIYAMOTO H. Severe plastic deformation of 6061 aluminum alloy tube with pre and post heat treatments [J]. Materials Science and Engineering A, 2013, 563: 60–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    DONG Guo-jiang, ZHAO Chang-cai, YA Yuan-yuan, ZHAO Jian-pei. Discrete element and finite element coupling simulation and experiment of hot granule medium pressure forming [J]. Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 2015, 25(12): 4089–4101.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    KUMAR M, SOTIROV N, CHIMANI C M. Investigations on warm forming of AW-7020-T6 alloy sheet [J]. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2014, 214(8): 1769–1776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiang Bi (毕江)
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chang-cai Zhao (赵长财)
    • 1
  • Meng-meng Bi (毕蒙蒙)
    • 1
  • Bing Du (杜冰)
    • 1
  • Xiao-hua Chen (陈晓华)
    • 1
  • Guo-jiang Dong (董国疆)
    • 3
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Advanced Forging & Stamping Technology and Science of Ministry of Education of ChinaYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and JoiningHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  3. 3.College of Vehicles and EnergyYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoChina

Personalised recommendations