Journal of Central South University

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 1417–1427 | Cite as

Effect of blade pitch angle on aerodynamic performance of straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine

  • Li-xun Zhang (张立勋)
  • Ying-bin Liang (梁迎彬)Email author
  • Xiao-hong Liu (刘小红)
  • Jian Guo (郭健)


Wind energy is one of the most promising renewable energy sources, straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine (S-VAWT) appears to be particularly promising for the shortage of fossil fuel reserves owing to its distinct advantages, but suffers from poor self-starting and low power coefficient. Variable-pitch method was recognized as an attractive solution to performance improvement, thus majority efforts had been devoted into blade pitch angle effect on aerodynamic performance. Taken into account the local flow field of S-VAWT, mathematical model was built to analyze the relationship between power outputs and pitch angle. Numerical simulations on static and dynamic performances of blade were carried out and optimized pitch angle along the rotor were presented. Comparative analyses of fixed pitch and variable-pitch S-VAWT were conducted, and a considerable improvement of the performance was obtained by the optimized blade pitch angle, in particular, a relative increase of the power coefficient by more than 19.3%. It is further demonstrated that the self-starting is greatly improved with the optimized blade pitch angle.

Key words

straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine pitch angle numerical simulation self-starting power coefficient 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    PRYOR S, BARTHELMIE R. Climate change impacts on wind energy: A review [J]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2010, 14(1): 430–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    ASLAM BHUTTA M M, HAYAT N, FAROOQ A U, ALI Z, JAMIL S R, HUSSAIN Z. Vertical axis wind turbine-A review of various configurations and design techniques [J]. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2012, 16(4): 1926–1939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    CHONG W T, POH S C, FAZLIZAN A, PAN K C. Vertical axis wind turbine with omni-directional-guide-vane for urban high-rise buildings [J]. Journal of Central South University of Technology, 2012, 19(3): 727–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    HOWELL R, QIN N, EDWARDS J, DURRANI N. Wind tunnel and numerical study of a small vertical axis wind turbine [J]. Renewable Energy, 2010, 35(2): 412–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    ASHER I M, DRELA M, PERAIRE J. A low order model for vertical axis wind turbines [C]// 28th AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference. Chicago, Illinois, USA, 2010: 1–9.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    SCHEURICH F, FLETCHER T M, BROWN R E. Effect of blade geometry on the aerodynamic loads produced by vertical-axis wind turbines [J]. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 2011, 225(3): 327–341.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    DOMINY R, LUNT P, BICKERDYKE A, DOMINY J. Self-starting capability of a Darrieus turbine [J]. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 2007, 221(1): 111–120.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    KIRKE B K. Evaluation of self-starting vertical axis wind turbines for stand-alone applications [D]. Australia: School of Engineering, Griffith University, 1998: 41–50.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    HILL N, DOMINY R, INGRAM G, DOMINY J. Darrieus turbines: The physics of self-starting [J]. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, 2009, 223(1): 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    ISLAM M, TING D S K, FARTAJ A. Desirable airfoil features for smaller-capacity straight-bladed VAWT [J]. Wind Engineering, 2007, 31(3): 165–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    WANG You-jin, YAN Chao, ZHOU Tao. Numerical investigation of dynamic stall vortex movement of different-thickness airfoils [J]. Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006, 32(2): 153–157. (in Chinese)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    KLIMAS P C, WORSTELL M H. Effects of blade preset pitch/offset on curved-blade Darrieus vertical axis wind turbine performance [R]. Sandia National Laboratories, 1981.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    LAZAUSKAS L. Three pitch control systems for vertical axis wind turbines compared [J]. Wind Engineering, 1992, 16(5): 269–282.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    PARASCHIVOIU I. Wind turbine design: With emphasis on Darrieus concept [M]. Canada: Polytechnique International Presses, 2002.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    PAWSEY N C K. Development and evaluation of passive variable-pitch vertical axis wind turbines [D]. School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, 2002: 15–20.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    LILJEGREN L K. Vertical axis wind turbine: USA US4430044 [P]. 1984.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    CAMPOREALE S M, MAGI V. Streamtube model for analysis of vertical axis variable pitch turbine for marine currents energy conversion [J]. Energy Conversion and Management, 2000, 41(16): 1811–1827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    KIWATA T, YAMADA T, KITA T, TAKATA S, KOMATSU N, KIMURA S. Performance of a vertical axis wind turbine with variable-pitch straight blades utilizing a linkage mechanism [J]. Journal of Environment and Engineering, 2010, 5(1): 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    DREES H M. The cycloturbine and its potential for broad application [C]// The 2nd International Symposium on Wind Energy Systems. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1979: 81–88.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    MA Qing-wei. Study on Performance of straight-bladed hydroturbine with adjustable angle [D]. Harbin: Harbin Shipbuilding Engineering Institute, 1984: 30–35. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    GRYLLS W, DALE B, SARRE P E. A theoretical and experimental investigation into the variable pitch vertical axis wind turbine [C]// The 2nd International Symposium on Wind Energy Systems. Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 1979: 101–118.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    ZHANG Li-xun, ZHANG Song, WANG Kang, LIU Xiao-hong, LIANG Ying-bin. Study on synchronous variable-pitch vertical axis wind turbine [C]// 2011 Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference, APPEEC 2011. Wuhan, China, 2011: 1–5.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    COOPER P, KENNEDY O C. Development and analysis of a novel vertical axis wind turbine [C]// 42nd Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Solar Energy Society. Perth, Australia: ACANZSES, 2004.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    SCH NBORN A, CHANTZIDAKIS M. Development of a hydraulic control mechanism for cyclic pitch marine current turbines [J]. Renewable Energy, 2007, 32(4): 662–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    HWANG I S, LEE Y H, KIM S J. Optimization of cycloidal water turbine and the performance improvement by individual blade control [J]. Applied Energy, 2009, 86(9): 1532–1540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    WANG Sheng-yi, INGHAM D B, MA L, POURKASHANIAN M, TAO Zhi. Numerical investigations on dynamic stall of low Reynolds number flow around oscillating airfoils [J]. Computers and Fluids, 2010, 39(9): 1529–1541.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    AMET E, MAITRE T, PELLONE C, ACHARD J L. 2D numerical simulations of blade-vortex interaction in a darrieus turbine [J]. Journal of Fluids Engineering, Transactions of the ASME, 2009, 131(11): 1111031–11110315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Central South University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Li-xun Zhang (张立勋)
    • 1
  • Ying-bin Liang (梁迎彬)
    • 1
    Email author
  • Xiao-hong Liu (刘小红)
    • 1
  • Jian Guo (郭健)
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringHarbin Engineering UniversityHarbinChina

Personalised recommendations