Aerodynamic drag is proportional to the square of speed. With the increase of the speed of train, aerodynamic drag plays an important role for high-speed train. Thus, the reduction of aerodynamic drag and energy consumption of high-speed train is one of the essential issues for the development of the desirable train system. Aerodynamic drag on the traveling train is divided into pressure drag and friction one. Pressure drag of train is the force caused by the pressure distribution on the train along the reverse running direction. Friction drag of train is the sum of shear stress, which is the reverse direction of train running direction. In order to reduce the aerodynamic drag, adopting streamline shape of train is the most effective measure. The velocity of the train is related to its length and shape. The outer wind shields can reduce train’s air drag by about 15%. At the same time, the train with bottom cover can reduce the air drag by about 50%, compared with the train without bottom plate or skirt structure.
aerodynamics of train high speed train aerodynamic drag drag reduction