Journal of Cancer Survivorship

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 291–305 | Cite as

Development of the Cancer Survivor Profile-Breast Cancer (CSPro-BC) app: patient and nurse perspectives on a new navigation tool

  • Amanda Gehrke
  • Sukhyung Steve Lee
  • Karrie Hilton
  • Barbara Ganster
  • Rebecca Trupp
  • Corinne McCullough
  • Elizabeth Mott
  • Michael Feuerstein



Despite advancements in care, cancer survivors continue to report unmet needs following active cancer treatment. The Cancer Survivor Profile-Breast Cancer (CSPro-BC) application (app) was developed to help address these needs, using breast cancer survivors (BCS) as a pilot group. This paper describes the app development, BCS and nurse perceptions of the app, and changes made based on this feedback.


The CSPro-BC app was developed for use on an iPad and includes (1) administration of a 15–20-min survey assessing 18 needs, (2) generation of a profile of needs, relative to a reference group of BCS (median 2 years post-treatment), and (3) provision of problem-specific online resources. Perceptions of the app were evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Feedback was elicited from nurse navigators and BCS. BCS were recruited until the point of saturation.


BCS (N = 11) were middle-aged and a median of 2.4 months post active treatment. Structured questionnaires indicated the following: survey covered meaningful problem areas, profile display was clear, and nurse’s involvement was helpful. Follow-up interviews (2 weeks later) revealed that BCS shared their profile with others, but most BCS did not use the resources and those who did thought there were too many. Nurses (N = 3) said the app increased appointment time, but prompted them to discuss areas often not covered in typical BCS follow-up.


Feedback by end users directly informed revision of the app.

Implications for Cancer Survivors

The CSPro-BC app has been optimized based on BCS feedback.


Cancer survivor Breast cancer Navigation Communication Unmet needs Information technology 



Funding for this research is provided to the Principal Investigator Michael Feuerstein, PhD, MPH, by Murtha Cancer Center through a Congressional Special Interest project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Amanda Gehrke declares that she has no conflict of interest. Sukhyung Steve Lee declares that he has no conflict of interest. Karrie Hilton declares she has no conflict of interest. Barbara Ganster declares she has no conflict of interest. Rebecca Trupp declares she has no conflict of interest. Corinne McCullough declares she has no conflict of interest and Elizabeth Mott declares she has no conflict of interest. Michael Feuerstein is the editor of the Journal of Cancer Survivorship. This paper was subjected to full peer review.

Ethical approval

This protocol was approved by the Internal Review Boards of the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all breast cancer participants.


The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private ones of the authors and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Department of Defense, Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, or the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

Supplementary material

11764_2017_668_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (354 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 354 kb)


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amanda Gehrke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sukhyung Steve Lee
    • 1
  • Karrie Hilton
    • 1
  • Barbara Ganster
    • 1
  • Rebecca Trupp
    • 1
  • Corinne McCullough
    • 1
  • Elizabeth Mott
    • 1
  • Michael Feuerstein
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Murtha Cancer CenterWalter Reed National Military Medical CenterBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medical and Clinical PsychologyUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA
  3. 3.Preventive Medicine and BiometricsUniformed Services University of the Health SciencesBethesdaUSA

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