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Table 2 Associations between baseline participant characteristics and level of self-efficacy (confidence to self-manage aspects of illness) up to 2 years after surgery: results from final trajectory model

From: Colorectal cancer patient’s self-efficacy for managing illness-related problems in the first 2 years after diagnosis, results from the ColoREctal Well-being (CREW) study

Domain Baseline characteristic Trajectory of six-item SEMCD scale
Group 1: very confident (N = 116) Group 2: fairly confident (N = 388) Group 3: neutral (N = 232) Group 4: not confident (N = 66)
Socio-demographic Neighbourhood deprivation quintile Reference p = 0.06 p = 0.03 p = 0.13
 First (least deprived) 28 (24.8%) 84 (22.2%) 39 (17.0%) 9 (14.1%)
 Second 26 (23.0%) 89 (23.5%) 41 (17.8%) 9 (14.1%)
 Third 20 (17.7%) 71 (18.8%) 47 (20.4%) 12 (18.7%)
 Fourth 23 (20.3%) 61 (16.1%) 50 (21.7%) 14 (21.9%)
 Fifth (most deprived) 16 (14.2%) 73 (19.3%) 53 (23.0%) 20 (31.2%)
Domestic status Reference p = 0.16 p = 0.01 p = 0.002
 Married/living with partner 87 (82.1%) 273 (74.8%) 138 (63.9%) 31 (51.7%)
 Single/widowed/divorced/separated 19 (17.9%) 92 (25.2%) 78 (36.1%) 29 (48.3%)
Clinical and treatment Co-morbidities Reference p = 0.60 p = 0.22 p < 0.001
 None 42 (40.0%) 107 (34.2%) 23 (12.4%) 10 (19.2%)
 1 45 (42.9%) 88 (28.1%) 61 (32.8%) 16 (30.8%)
 2 13 (12.4%) 68 (21.7%) 61 (32.8%) 7 (13.5%)
 3+ 5 (4.8%) 50 (16.0%) 41 (22.0%) 19 (36.5%)
Stoma Reference p = 0.01 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 No 88 (76.5%) 255 (66.7%) 130 (57.3%) 31 (47.7%)
 Yes 27 (23.5%) 127 (33.3%) 97 (42.7%) 34 (52.3%)
Symptoms Fatigue; mean (SD) Reference p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
9.3 (5.0) 11.9 (5.0) 14.8 (4.8) 18.9 (4.7)
Pain; mean (SD) Reference p = 0.13 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
6.7 (3.4) 8.9 (4.7) 11.4 (5.7) 14.6 (6.5)
Psychosocial Positivity; mean (SD) Reference p = 0.05 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
20.2 (5.3) 19.1 (4.0) 16.1 (3.9) 15.0 (3.5)
Negativity; mean (SD) Reference p = 0.02 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
6.7 (2.6) 7.8 (3.1) 10.1 (3.6) 12.2 (4.8)
  1. Final trajectory model included all participant characteristics shown in table (i.e. those statistically significant for at least one group comparison) as well as a term indicating whether baseline questionnaire completed before or after surgery. Higher scores for fatigue and pain indicate greater problems, range 4–28 (QLACS subscales). Lower scores for positivity and greater scores for negativity indicate poorer levels of personal affect, range 5–25 (PANAS subscales). P values represent significance of Wald test for each characteristic in groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively, compared with group 1 (reference group). Denominators for percents vary due to missing data for some characteristics; percents are calculated out of those with data available. Extent of missing data for predictor variables: fatigue N available 753, N missing 3; pain N available 748, N missing 8; positivity N available 724, N missing 32; negativity N available 731, N missing 25 at baseline. Cut-offs used to describe categories of mean six-item SEMCD scale: 1–4 ‘low confidence’, 5–6 ‘moderately confident’, 7–8 ‘confident’ and 9–10 ‘very confident’
  2. SD standard deviation