Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2016. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016;66:7–30.
Chen Z, Maricic M, Bassford TL, Pettinger M, Ritenbaugh C, Lopez AM, et al. Fracture risk among breast cancer survivors: results from the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165:552–8.
Kanis JA, McCloskey EV, Powles T, Paterson AH, Ashley S, Spector T. A high incidence of vertebral fracture in women with breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1999;79:1179–81.
Hadji P. Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in breast cancer patients is distinct from postmenopausal osteoporosis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2009;69:73–82.
Santen RJ. Clinical review: effect of endocrine therapies on bone in breast cancer patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96:308–19.
Hadji P, Asmar L, van Nes JG, Menschik T, Hasenburg A, Kuck J, et al. The effect of exemestane and tamoxifen on bone health within the Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) trial: a meta-analysis of the US, German, Netherlands, and Belgium sub-studies. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137:1015–25.
Vehmanen L, Saarto T, Elomaa I, Makela P, Valimaki M, Blomqvist C. Long-term impact of chemotherapy-induced ovarian failure on bone mineral density (BMD) in premenopausal breast cancer patients. The effect of adjuvant clodronate treatment. Eur J Cancer. 2001;37:2373–8.
Shapiro CL, Manola J, Leboff M. Ovarian failure after adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with rapid bone loss in women with early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2001;19:3306–11.
Tonezzer T, Pereira CM, Filho UP, Marx A. Hormone therapy/adjuvant chemotherapy induced deleterious effects on the bone mass of breast cancer patients and the intervention of physiotherapy: a literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2010;31:262–7.
Bruning PF, Pit MJ, de Jong-Bakker M, van den Ende A, Hart A, van Enk A. Bone mineral density after adjuvant chemotherapy for premenopausal breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 1990;61:308–10.
Goodwin PJ, Ennis M, Pritchard KI, McCready D, Koo J, Sidlofsky S, et al. Adjuvant treatment and onset of menopause predict weight gain after breast cancer diagnosis. J Clin Oncol. 1999;17:120–9.
Saad F, Adachi JD, Brown JP, Canning LA, Gelmon KA, Josse RG, et al. Cancer treatment-induced bone loss in breast and prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:5465–76.
Riggs BL. The mechanisms of estrogen regulation of bone resorption. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:1203–4.
Freedman OC, Fletcher GG, Gandhi S, Mates M, Dent SF, Trudeau ME, et al. Adjuvant endocrine therapy for early breast cancer: a systematic review of the evidence for the 2014 Cancer Care Ontario systemic therapy guideline. Curr Oncol. 2015;22:S95–S113.
Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative G. Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet. 2005;365:1687–717.
Smith IE, Dowsett M. Aromatase inhibitors in breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:2431–42.
Winters-Stone KM, Laudermilk M, Woo K, Brown JC, Schmitz KH. Influence of weight training on skeletal health of breast cancer survivors with or at risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema. J Cancer Surviv. 2014;8:260–8.
Winters-Stone KM, Dobek J, Nail LM, Bennett JA, Leo MC, Torgrimson-Ojerio B, et al. Impact + resistance training improves bone health and body composition in prematurely menopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2013;24:1637–46.
Saarto T, Sievanen H, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen P, Nikander R, Vehmanen L, Huovinen R, et al. Effect of supervised and home exercise training on bone mineral density among breast cancer patients. A 12-month randomised controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:1601–12.
Winters-Stone KM, Dobek J, Nail L, Bennett JA, Leo MC, Naik A, et al. Strength training stops bone loss and builds muscle in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized, controlled trial. [Erratum appears in Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011 Jun;127(2):457]. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;127:447–56.
Waltman NL, Twiss JJ, Ott CD, Gross GJ, Lindsey AM, Moore TE, et al. The effect of weight training on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors with bone loss: a 24-month randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2010;21:1361–9.
Swenson KK, Nissen MJ, Anderson E, Shapiro A, Schousboe J, Leach J. Effects of exercise vs bisphosphonates on bone mineral density in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. J Support Oncol. 2009;7:101–7.
Knobf MT, Jeon S, Smith B, Harris L, Kerstetter J, Thompson AS, et al. Effect of a randomized controlled exercise trial on bone outcomes: influence of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016;155:491–500.
Peppone LJ, Mustian KM, Janelsins MC, Palesh OG, Rosier RN, Piazza KM, et al. Effects of a structured weight-bearing exercise program on bone metabolism among breast cancer survivors: a feasibility trial. Clin Breast Cancer. 2010;10:224–9.
Irwin ML, Alvarez-Reeves M, Cadmus L, Mierzejewski E, Mayne ST, Yu H, et al. Exercise improves body fat, lean mass, and bone mass in breast cancer survivors. Obesity. 2009;17:1534–41.
Schwartz AL, Winters-Stone K, Gallucci B. Exercise effects on bone mineral density in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2007;34:627–33.
Sellmeyer D, Stewart S, Bloom J. A randomized controlled trial of exercise to prevent bone loss and adverse cardiovascular changes in premenopausal women with breast cancer. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28(S1):FR0428.
Simonavice E, Liu PY, Ilich JZ, Kim JS, Arjmandi B, Panton LB. The effects of a 6-month resistance training and dried plum consumption intervention on strength, body composition, blood markers of bone turnover, and inflammation in breast cancer survivors. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2014;39:730–9.
Howe TE, Shea B, Dawson LJ, Downie F, Murray A, Ross C, et al. Exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;7:CD000333.
Cramer H, Lauche R, Klose P, Lange S, Langhorst J, Dobos GJ. Yoga for women diagnosed with breast cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(10):CD010802. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010802.
Winters-Stone KM, Schwartz A, Nail LM. A review of exercise interventions to improve bone health in adult cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv. 2010;4:187–201.
Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0. The Cochrane Collaboration. 2011. Available from www.handbook.cochrane.org.
Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D, Group C. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. Trials. 2010;11:32.
Nikander R, Sievanen H, Ojala K, Kellokumpu-Lehtinen PL, Palva T, Blomqvist C, et al. Effect of exercise on bone structural traits, physical performance and body composition in breast cancer patients—a 12-month RCT. J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2012;12:127–35.
Winters-Stone KM, Leo MC, Schwartz A. Exercise effects on hip bone mineral density in older, post-menopausal breast cancer survivors are age dependent. Arch Osteoporos. 2012;7:301–6.
Dobek J, Winters-Stone KM, Bennett JA, Nail L. Musculoskeletal changes after 1 year of exercise in older breast cancer survivors. J Cancer Surviv. 2014;8:304–11.
Winters-Stone KM, Dobek J, Nail L, Bennett JA, Leo MC, Naik A, et al. Erratum to: Strength training stops bone loss and builds muscle in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized, controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011;127:457.
Twiss JJ, Waltman NL, Berg K, Ott CD, Gross GJ, Lindsey AM. An exercise intervention for breast cancer survivors with bone loss. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2009;41:20–7.
Knobf M, Winters-Stone K. Exercise and cancer. Annu Rev Nurs Res. 2013;31:327–65.
Pacifici R. Estrogen, cytokines, and pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res. 1996;11:1043–51.
Cenci S, Weitzmann MN, Roggia C, Namba N, Novack D, Woodring J, et al. Estrogen deficiency induces bone loss by enhancing T-cell production of TNF-alpha. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:1229–37.
Perez EA, Weilbaecher K. Aromatase inhibitors and bone loss. Oncology (Williston Park). 2006;20:1029–39.
Maximov PY, Lee TM, Jordan VC. The discovery and development of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for clinical practice. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2013;8:135–55.
Kohrt WM. Aging and the osteogenic response to mechanical loading. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2001;11(Suppl):S137–42.
Maccormick RE. Possible acceleration of aging by adjuvant chemotherapy: a cause of early onset frailty? Med Hypotheses. 2006;67:212–5.
Arnold P, Bautmans I. The influence of strength training on muscle activation in elderly persons: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Exp Gerontol. 2014;58:58–68.
Martyn-St James M, Carroll S. A meta-analysis of impact exercise on postmenopausal bone loss: the case for mixed loading exercise programmes. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43:898–908.
Martyn-St James M, Carroll S. Meta-analysis of walking for preservation of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Bone. 2008;43:521–31.
Swenson KK, Nissen MJ, Henly SJ. Physical activity in women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer: adherence to a walking intervention. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2010;37:321–30.
Runowicz CD, Leach CR, Henry NL, Henry KS, Mackey HT, Cowens-Alvarado RL, et al. American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34:611–35.
Hadji P, Aapro MS, Body JJ, Bundred NJ, Brufsky A, Coleman RE, et al. Management of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer: practical guidance for prevention and treatment. Ann Oncol. 2011;22:2546–55.
Ott CD, Twiss JJ, Waltman NL, Gross GJ, Lindsey AM. Challenges of recruitment of breast cancer survivors to a randomized clinical trial for osteoporosis prevention. Cancer Nurs. 2006;29:21–31.
Fernandez Ortega A, Jolis Lopez L, Vinas Villaro G, Villanueva Vazquez R, Garcia Arias A, Gonzalez Farre X, et al. Individualization of treatment strategies. Adv Ther. 2011;28(Suppl 6):19–38.