Signal, Image and Video Processing

, Volume 12, Issue 6, pp 1019–1026 | Cite as

A method using uniform yellowing pigmentation to model the color perception of the elderly people

  • Mohd Fikree HassanEmail author
  • Raveendran Paramesran
  • Yoshiki Tanaka
  • Kiyoshi Tanaka
Original Paper


As the usage of color images in presenting information via Web sites and smartphone applications increases, the color perception loss may affect the accuracy of the information when it is presented to elderly people. The earlier study considered non-uniform yellowing pigmentation model to mimic the color perception loss of elderly people. Recently, two clinical studies have shown that uniform yellowing pigmentation occurs on the human crystalline lens. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model using uniform yellowing pigmentation to mimic the color perception experienced by elderly people. The uniform yellowing pigmentation is formed using the measured transmittance functions of the LCD display and the spectral transmission factor. The uniform yellowing pigmentation formed is in agreement with the results of the clinical studies. Moreover, subjective evaluation showed that the results from the proposed method are closer to the clinical data and showed improvement when compared to the results from the non-uniform yellowing pigmentation method.


Uniform yellowing pigmentation Elderly color perception Color image Elderly people 



We are deeply thankful to our volunteers. We would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions.


  1. 1.
    Artigas, J.M., Felipe, A., Navea, A., Fandino, A., Artigas, C.: Spectral transmission of the human crystalline lens in adult and elderly persons: color and total transmission of visible light. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(7), 4076–4084 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chua, J.L., Chang, Y.C., Lim, W.K.: A simple vision-based fall detection technique for indoor video surveillance. SIViP 9(3), 623–633 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fairchild, M.D.: Color appearance models. Wiley, London (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fiorentini, A., Porciatti, V., Morrone, M.C., Burr, D.C.: Visual ageing: unspecific decline of the responses to luminance and colour. Vis. Res. 36(21), 3557–3566 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gibson, J.E., Fairchild, M.D.: Colorimetric characterization of three computer displays (LCD and CRT). Munsell Color Science Laboratory Technical Report (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haskett, M.K., Hovis, J.K.: Comparison of the standard pseudoisochromatic plates to the Ishihara color vision test. Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 46(3), 211–216 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hassan, M.F., Kugimiya, T., Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, K., Paramesran, R.: Comparative analysis of the color perception loss for elderly people. In: Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association (APSIPA) Annual Summit and Conference, pp. 1176–1181 (2015)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ishihara, K., Ishihara, S., Nagamachi, M., Hiramatsu, S., Osaki, H.: Age-related decline in color perception and difficulties with daily activities-measurement, questionnaire, optical and computer-graphics simulation studies. Int. J. Ind. Ergon. 28, 153–163 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mohadis, H.M., Ali, N.M.: A study of smartphone usage and barriers among the elderly. In: 3rd International Conference on User Science and Engineering (i-USer), pp. 109–114 (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nguyen, D.T., Overbury, O., Faubert, J.: The role of lenticular senescence in age-related color vision changes. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(8), 3698–3704 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Norren, D.V., Vos, J.J.: Spectral transmission of the human ocular media. Vision. Res. 14, 1237–1244 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Okajima, K., Takase, M.: Computerized simulation and chromatic adaptation experiments based on a model of aged human lens. Opt. Rev. 8(1), 64–70 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pokorny, J., Smith, V.C., Lutze, M.: Aging of the human lens. Appl. Opt. 26(8), 1437–1440 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Romano, G., Mercatelli, L., Fusi, F., Guasti, A., Favuzza, E., Monici, M., Mencucci, R.: Colorimetric comparison of light-filtering intraocular lens and human crystalline lenses at various ages. J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 37(4), 758–762 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ruddock, K.H.: The effect of age upon colour vision—II. Changes with age in light transmission of the ocular media. Vis. Res. 5, 47–58 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ruddock, K.H.: The effect of age upon colour vision—I. Response in the receptoral system of the human eye. Vis. Res. 5, 37–45 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Said, F.S., Weale, R.A.: The variation with age of the spectral transmissivity of the living human crystalline lens. Gerontologia 3(37), 213–231 (1959)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Salvi, S.M., Akhtar, S., Currie, Z.: Ageing changes in the eye. Postgrad. Med. J. 82(971), 581–587 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sheikh, H.R., Sabir, M.F., Bovik, A.C.: A statistical evaluation of recent full reference quality assessment algorithms. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 15(11), 3440–3451 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Soundararajan, R., Bovik, A.C.: Survey of information theory in visual quality assessment. SIViP 7(3), 391–401 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Suzuki, T., Qiang, Y., Sakuragawa, S., Tamura, H., Okajima, K.: Age-related changes of reaction time and p300 for low-contrast color stimuli: effects of yellowing of the aging human lens. J. Physiol. Anthropol. 25(2), 179–187 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tanaka, Y., Tanaka, K., Yokoyama, S., Nakamura, H., Ichikawa, K., Tanabe, S.: An improved simulation method of color perception by elderly people based on measured luminescence spectrum and color constancy relaxation. J. Inst. Image Electr. Eng. Jpn. 40(1), 86–95 (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weale, R.A.: Notes on the photometric significance of the human crystalline lens. Vis. Res. 1, 183–191 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Weale, R.A.: Retinal illumination and age. Light. Res. Technol. 26(2), 95–100 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Werner, J.S., Steele, V.G.: Sensitivity of the human foveal color mechanisms throughout the life span. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 5, 2122–2130 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Winn, B., Whitaker, D., Elliott, D.B., Phillips, N.J.: Factors affecting light-adapted pupil size in normal human subjects. Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 35(3), 1132–1137 (1994)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yoshida, C.A., Sakuraba, S.: The use of films to simulate age-related decline in yellow vision. J. Occup. Rehabil. 6(2), 119–134 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohd Fikree Hassan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Raveendran Paramesran
    • 1
  • Yoshiki Tanaka
    • 3
  • Kiyoshi Tanaka
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia
  2. 2.HELP Matriculation CentreHELP UniversityKuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Chukyo Medical Co. Inc.NagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Faculty of EngineeringShinshu UniversityMatsumotoJapan

Personalised recommendations