Signal, Image and Video Processing

, Volume 8, Issue 1, pp 49–63 | Cite as

Robust hybrid color image watermarking method based on DFT domain and 2D histogram modification

  • Manuel Cedillo-HernándezEmail author
  • Francisco García-Ugalde
  • Mariko Nakano-Miyatake
  • Héctor Manuel Pérez-Meana
Original Paper


In this paper, we present a robust hybrid watermarking method applied to color images for authentication, which presents robustness against several distortions. Due to the different nature of common signal processing and geometrical attacks, two different techniques for embed a same watermark are used in this method. In the first one, the luminance component (Y) information is used to embed the watermark bit sequence into the magnitude of the middle frequencies of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). In the second one, a selected region of 2D histogram composed by blue-difference and red-difference (Cb–Cr) chrominance components is modified according to the watermark bit sequence. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the following well-known indices peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), visual information fidelity (VIF) and structural similarity index (SSIM). The difference color of the watermarked image is obtained using the normalized color difference (NCD) measure. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides robustness against several geometric distortions, signal processing operations, combined distortions and photo editing. The comparison with the previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.


Authentication Robust watermarking Histogram modification Geometric attacks Hybrid watermarking 



We thank the Program of Post Doctoral Scholarships DGAPA in the UNAM of Mexico, the National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico by support provided during the realization of this research, and DGAPA-UNAM project PAPIIT IN-112513.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel Cedillo-Hernández
    • 1
    Email author
  • Francisco García-Ugalde
    • 1
  • Mariko Nakano-Miyatake
    • 2
  • Héctor Manuel Pérez-Meana
    • 2
  1. 1.Electric Engineering Division, Engineering FacultyNational Autonomous University of MexicoCoyoacan, Mexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Postgraduate Section, Mechanical Electrical Engineering SchoolNational Polytechnic Institute of MexicoCoyoacan, Mexico CityMexico

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