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Signal, Image and Video Processing

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 297–306 | Cite as

High performance reversible data hiding for block truncation coding compressed images

  • Wei Sun
  • Zhe-Ming LuEmail author
  • Yu-Chun Wen
  • Fa-Xin Yu
  • Rong-Jun Shen
Original Paper

Abstract

Reversible data hiding has been a hot research topic because it can recover both the host media and hidden data without distortion. Because most digital images are stored and transmitted in compressed forms, such as JPEG, vector quantization, and block truncation coding (BTC), the reversible data hiding schemes in compressed domains have been paid more and more attention. Compared with transform coding, BTC has a significantly low complexity and less memory requirement, it therefore becomes an ideal data hiding domain. Traditional data hiding schemes in the BTC domain modify the BTC encoding stage or BTC-compressed data according to the secret bits, and they have a relatively low efficiency and meanwhile may reduce the image quality. This paper presents a novel reversible data hiding scheme based on the joint neighbor coding technique for BTC-compressed images by further losslessly encoding the BTC-compressed data according to the secret bits. First, BTC is performed on the original image to obtain the BTC-compressed data that can be represented by a high mean table, a low mean table, and a bitplane sequence. Then, the secret data are losslessly embedded in both the high mean and low mean tables. Our hiding scheme is a lossless method based on the relation among the current value and the neighboring ones in mean tables. In addition, it can averagely embed 2 bits in each mean value, which increases the capacity and efficiency. Experimental results show that our scheme outperforms three existing BTC-based data hiding works, in terms of the bit rate, capacity, and efficiency.

Keywords

Data hiding Reversible data hiding Joint neighbor coding Block truncation coding 

List of symbols

A

The image width

a

The block width

B

The image height

b

The block height

bi

The initial reference location for encoding I cur, h cur and l cur

bo

The offset of the reference index used to encode I cur

\({b_{o}^{(H)}}\)

The offset of the reference high mean for encoding h cur

\({b_{o}^{(L) }}\)

The offset of the reference low mean for encoding l cur

BP

The codestream of bitplane

br

The final location of the reference index to encode I cur

\({b_{r}^{(H)}}\)

The final location of the reference high mean for encoding h cur

\({b_{r}^{(L)}}\)

The final location of the reference low mean for encoding l cur

CSH

The codestream of the embedded high mean table

CSL

The codestream of the embedded low mean table

D

The difference between I cur and I ref

DH

The difference between h cur and h ref

DL

The difference between l cur and l ref

\({(D^{(m)})_{2}}\)

The m bits binary code of D

H

The high mean table

hij, 1 ≤ iA/a, 1 ≤ jB/b

The high mean of block x (ij)

hcur

The current high mean to be encoded

href

The reference high mean used to encode h cur

Icur

The current index to be encoded

Iref

The reference index used to encode I cur

lij, 1 ≤ iA/a, 1 ≤ jB/b

The low mean of block x (ij)

L

The low mean table

L

The codestream length

lcur

The current low mean to be encoded

lref

The reference low mean used to encode l cur

m

The truncation integer used to distinguish the range of D, D H , and D L

N

The VQ codebook size

n

The number of neighboring indices considered

P

The bitplane sequence

pij, 1 ≤ iA/a, 1 ≤ jB/b

The bitplane of block x (ij)

tij, 1 ≤ iA/a, 1 ≤ jB/b

The mean value of block x (ij)

X

The original image

\({\left\lceil x \right\rceil}\)

The least integer not less than x

x(ij), 1 ≤ iA/a, 1 ≤ jB/b

The image block in the i-th row and j-th column

\({x_{uv}^{(ij)},\; 1\leq u \leq a, 1 \leq v \leq b}\)

The pixel at the location (u, v) of block x (ij)

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Sun
    • 1
  • Zhe-Ming Lu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yu-Chun Wen
    • 1
  • Fa-Xin Yu
    • 1
  • Rong-Jun Shen
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Aeronautics and AstronauticsZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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