Skip to main content
Log in

Will Historical Archaeology Escape Its Western Prejudices to Become Relevant to Africa?

  • Research
  • Published:
Archaeologies Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

A major problem facing North American approaches to historical archaeology is the exclusionary manner in which the discipline is defined. By confining historical archaeology to the era of capitalism and colonialism, we declare that the indigenous histories of many areas of the globe are of no interest to such an intellectual agenda. If we practice an historical archaeology that only valorizes the colonial experience, then what happens to history making that engaged cultures in the pre-capitalist and pre-modern era? Such approaches separate the histories of people in Africa from those of the West, and, is in effect, academic apartheid. To remedy this disjuncture, we interrogate how historical archaeology may escape the bounds of implicit racism in its denial of historicity before literacy. We suggest that breaking the chains of exclusion is the only way to realize an inclusive archaeology sensitive to all history making projects.

Résumé

Les approches nord-américaines à l’archéologie historique font face à un problème majeur, soit la base d’exclusion sur laquelle la discipline est définie. En confinant l’archéologie historique aux ères du capitalisme et du colonialisme, nous déclarons que l’histoire autochtone de plusieurs régions du monde ne suscite aucunement l’intérêt d’un tel programme intellectuel. Si nous exerçons une archéologie historique qui ne valorise que l’expérience coloniale, qu’advient-il des événements historiques ayant mobilisé les cultures des ères précapitaliste et prémoderne? Lesdites approches excluent l’histoire des peuples d’Afrique de celle des peuples occidentaux, devenant pour cause un modèle d’apartheid académique. Pour colmater cette brèche, nous nous demandons comment l’archéologie historique peut se sortir du joug du racisme implicite et de son déni de l’historicité préalable à l’alphabétisation. Nous suggérons que le seul moyen de donner naissance à une archéologie sensible à tous les projets marquants de l’histoire est de briser les chaînes de l’exclusion.

Resumen

Un problema muy grave que enfrentan los enfoques norteamericanos a la arqueología histórica es la manera excluyente en que se define la disciplina. Al confinar a la arqueología histórica a la era del capitalismo y del colonialismo, declaramos que las historias indígenas de muchas áreas del mundo no le interesan a dicha agenda intelectual. Si practicamos una arqueología histórica que s lo valoriza la experiencia colonial, entonces, ¿qué ocurre con la historia hecha por las culturas que participaron en la era precapitalista y premoderna? Tales enfoques separan las historias de los pueblos de África de las del Occidente y, de hecho, es un apartheid académico. Para remediar esta coyuntura, interrogamos cómo la arqueología histórica puede escapar a los límites del racismo implícito en su negación de la autenticidad histórica antes de la alfabetización. Sugerimos que la única manera de realizar una arqueología inclusiva, sensible a todos los proyectos de hacer historia, es romper las cadenas de la exclusión.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Notes

  1. In the late 1950s, terms such as “academic apartheid” were used in connection with segregation and racialization of South African institutions of higher education (see e.g. Davis 1960). Such terms have been resisted by scholars based at these institutions because of the discomfort their use created in those contexts. The very indifference of South African academics to the first World Archaeological Congress (WAC1) underlines this. The same phrase is in use today in connection with adjunct faculty in the USA (see DeSantis 2011). In South Africa, academic apartheid evolved out of institutionalized racism, as university governance dealt with drafting policies to protect white students, who, until recently, were the majority at such institutions.

  2. By colonialism or colonization, we are using the term in a restricted context, to refer to gradual, and then increased, and finally accelerated European interest, settlement and, very often, violent subjugation of the continent of Africa, from the late fifteenth to the end of the 19th centuries. The coastal regions and the interiors of Africa were colonised in very different ways, by fundamentally different European imperial ideologies (see e.g. Ekechi 2002; Lovejoy 2012). The existence of a vast African diaspora from the 16th century onwards is largely the legacy of the practice of transporting millions of Africans out of the continent by European and Arab colonisers, a practice which triggered much violence among the societies affected. Referred to as the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, it was an integral part of the colonization of Africa. It involved expansion into the African hinterland, bringing many African societies into contact with Europeans, or at least, their trading items, which were exchanged for human resources (see e.g. Silliman 2005).

  3. Teaching of local history is optional. Because it is not included in national exams, very few teachers devote time to such a focus.

References

  • Barker, D., & Cranstone, D. (Eds.). (2004). The archaeology of industrialization. Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology Monograph Series. Leeds: Maney.

  • Bikunya, P. (1927). Ky’abakama ba Bunyoro. London: Sheldon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bugarin, F. (2009). Embracing many voices as keepers of the past. In P. R. Schmidt (Ed.), Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa (pp. 193–210). Santa Fe: SAR Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carroll, S. T. (1988). Solomonic legend: The muslims and the Great Zimbabwe. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 21(2), 233–247.

    Google Scholar 

  • Caton-Thompson, G. (1929). Great Zimbabwe based on the British Association report. Antiquity, 3(12), 424–433.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chami, F. (2009). The atomic model view of society: Application in studies of the African past. In Peter R. Schmidt (Ed.), Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa (pp. 39–56). Sante Fe: SAR Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1974). Kilwa: An Islamic Trading City on the East African Coast. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Chittick, N. (1984). Manda: Excavations at an island port on the Kenya Coast. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connah, G. (2007). Historical archaeology in Africa: An appropriate concept? African Archaeological Review, 1–2, 35–40.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper, F., & Stoler, A. L. (1997). Tensions of empire: Colonial cultures in a bourgeois world. Berkeley, Los Angels, London: University of California Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Davis, B. H. (1960). Academic apartheid: The association and the South African Professors. AAUP Bulletin, 46, 62–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Delius, P., O’Connell, T. M., & Schoeman, A. (2014). Forgotten world: The stone-walled settlements of the Mpumalanga Escarpment. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Denbow, J., Mosothwne, M., & Ndobochani, N. (2009). “Everybody here is all mixed up”: Postcolonial encounters with the past at Bosutwe, Botswana. In P. R. Schmidt (Ed.), Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa (pp. 211–230). Santa Fe: SAR Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • DeSantis, S. M. (2011). Academic apartheid: Waging the adjunct war. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dixon, J. R. (2011). Is the present day post-medieval? Post-Medieval Archaeology, 45(2), 313–321.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ekechi, F. (2002). The consolidation of colonial rule, 1885–1914. In T. Falola (Ed.), Colonial Africa, 1885–1939 (Vol. 3). Durham: Carolina Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Finch, J., & Giles, K. (Eds.). (2007). Estate landscapes: Design, improvement and power in the post medieval landscape. Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology Monograph Series. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

  • Fontein, J. (2006). The silence of Great Zimbabwe: Contested landscapes and the power of heritage. New York and London: University College London Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Funari, P. P. A., Hall, M., & Jones, S. (Eds.). (1999). Introduction: Archaeology in history. In Historical archaeology: Back from the edge (pp. 1–36). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaimster, D., & Gilchrist, R. (Eds.). (2003). The archaeology of reformation, 1480–1580. Proceedings of the joint conference of the Societies for Medieval Archaeology and Post-Medieval Archaeology. Leeds: Maney Publishing.

  • Ganter, R. (2003). Zimbabwe’s heavenly ruins: A mystery explained. London: Upfront Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garlake, P. S. (1973). Great Zimbabwe. New York: Stein & Day Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Green, A., & Leech, R. (2006). Cities in the world, 1500–2000. Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology Monograph Series. Leeds: Maney Publishing.

  • Hall, M. (1984). The burden of tribalism: The social context of southern African Iron Age studies. American Antiquity, 48(4), 455–467.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, M. (1999a). Subaltern voices? Finding the spaces between things and words. In P. P. A. Funari, M. Hall, & S. Jones (Eds.), Historical archaeology: Back from the edge (pp. 193–203). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, M. (1999b). Legacy of Racism: South African archaeology emerges from a half century of apartheid. Archaeology, 52(3), 64–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, M. (2000). An archaeology of the modern world. London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hall, M., & Silliman, S. W. (Eds.). (2006). Historical archaeology. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Holl, A. (2009). Worldviews, mind-sets, and trajectories in West African archaeology. In P. R. Schmidt (Ed.), Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa (pp. 129–148). Santa Fe: SAR Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Horning, A., & Palmer, M. (Eds.). (2009). Crossing paths or sharing tracks? Future directions in the archaeological study of post-1550 Britain and Ireland. Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology Monograph Series. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

  • Hromnick, C. A. (1981). Into Africa: Towards a new understanding of the history of sub-Saharan Africa. Cape Town: Juta.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huffman, T. N. (1996). Snakes & crocodiles: Power and symbolism in ancient Zimbabwe. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huffman, T. N. (2004). The archaeology of the Nguni past. Southern African Humanities, 16, 79–111.

    Google Scholar 

  • Huffman, T. N. (2007). Handbook to the Iron Age: The archaeology of pre-colonial farming societies in Southern Africa. Scottsville: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaggwa, A. (1971 [1901]). The Kings of Buganda [Translated and edited by M. S. M. Kiwanuka]. East Nairobi: African Publishing House.

  • Karega-Munene, & Schmidt, P. R. (2010). Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa: Breaking the silence. African Archaeological Review, 27, 323–337.

    Google Scholar 

  • Katoke, I. (1975). Karagwe Kingdom: A history of the Abanyambo of North Western Tanzania, C. 1400–1915. Nairobi: East African Publishing House.

    Google Scholar 

  • King, C. (2011). Is the present day post-medieval? A response. Post-Medieval Archaeology, 45(2), 322–324.

    Google Scholar 

  • King, C., & Sayer, D. (Eds.). (2011). The archaeology of post-medieval religion. Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology Monograph Series. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

  • Kirkman, J. (1954). The Arab City of Gedi: Excavations at the Great Mosque, architecture and finds. London: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kirkman, J. (1964). Men and monuments on the East African coast. London: Lutterworth Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kiwanuka, M. S. M. S. (1972). History of Buganda: From the Foundation of the Kingdom to 1900. New York: Africana Publishing Co.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kusimba, C. M. (2004). Archaeology of slavery in East Africa. African Archaeological Review, 21(2), 59–88.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kusimba, C. M. (2009). Practicing postcolonial archaeology in Africa from the United States. In P. R. Schmidt (Ed.), Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa (pp. 57–76). Santa Fe: SAR Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lightfoot, K. (1995). Culture contact studies: Redefining the relationship between prehistoric and historical archaeology. American Antiquity, 60(2), 199–217.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lovejoy, P. E. (2012). Transformations of Slavery: A history of slavery in Africa (3rd ed.). London: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lwamgira, F. X. (1949). Amakuru ga Kiziba na Abakama Bamu. Kashozi: Rumuli Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maggs, T., & O’Connell, M. (1976a). Iron Age patterns and Sotho history on the southern Highveld: South Africa. World Archaeology, 7(3), 318–332.

    Google Scholar 

  • Maggs, T., & O’Connell, M. (1976b). Iron Age communities of the Southern Highveld. Occasional Publications of the Natal Museum, No. 2. Pietermaritzburg: Natal Museum.

  • Maggs, T., & O’Connell, M. (1980). The Iron Age south of the Vaal and Pongola Rivers: Some historical implications. Journal of African History, 21(1), 1–15.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mallows, W. (1985). The mystery of the Great Zimbabwe: The key to a major archaeological enigma. London: Robert Hale.

    Google Scholar 

  • Marshall, L. (2012). Spatiality and the interpretation of identity formation: Fugitive slave community creation in nineteenth-century Kenya. African Archaeological Review, 29(4), 355–381.

    Google Scholar 

  • McNaughton, D. L. (2012). A possible semitic origin for ancient Zimbabwe. The Mankind Quarterly, 52(3–4), 323–335.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell, P. (2002). The archaeology of Southern Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mudimbe, V. Y. (1988). The invention of Africa: Gnosis, philosophy, and the order of knowledge. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mytum, H. (2016). A short history of the society for post-medieval archaeology. Post-Medieval Archaeology. https://doi.org/10.1080/00794236.2016.1160626.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ndlovu, N. (2009). Decolonizing the mind-set: South African archaeology in a postcolonial, post-apartheid era. In P. R. Schmidt (Ed.), Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa (pp. 177–192). Santa Fe: SAR Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ndlovu, N. (2010). Archaeological battles and triumphs: A personal reflection. In G. P. Nicholas (Ed.), Being and becoming indigenous archaeologists (pp. 222–234). Walnut Creek: Leftcoast Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ndoro, W. (2001). Your monument our shrine: The preservation of Great Zimbabwe studies in African Archaeology. Studies in African Archaeology 19. Uppsala: University of Uppsala.

  • Ogot, B. A. (1967). History of the Southern Luo: Migration and settlement, 1500–1900 (Vol. 1). Nairobi: East African Publishing House.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orser, C. E. (1996). A historical archaeology of the modern world. New York: Plenum Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orser, C. E. (2002). Encyclopedia of historical archaeology. New York: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orser, C. E. (2012). An archaeology of eurocentrism. American Antiquity, 77(4), 737–755.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orser, C. E., & Fagan, B. M. (1995). Historical archaeology. New York: Harper Collins.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pikirayi, I. (1993). The archaeological identity of the Mutapa state: Towards an historical archaeology of northern Zimbabwe. Studies in African Archaeology, 6. Uppsala: Societas Archaeologica Upsaliensis.

  • Pikirayi, I. (1999). Research trends in the historical archaeology of Zimbabwe. In P. P. A. Funari, M. Hall, & S. Jones (Eds.), Historical archaeology: Back from the edge (pp. 67–84). London: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pikirayi, I. (2001). The Zimbabwe culture: Origins and decline in southern Zambezia states. Walnut Creek: AltaMira Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pikirayi, I. (2006). Gold, black ivory and houses of stone. In M. Hall & S. Silliman (Eds.), Historical archaeology (pp. 230–250). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pikirayi, I. (2009). Palaces, Feiras and Prazos: An historical archaeological perspective of African Portuguese contact in northern Zimbabwe. African Archaeological Review, 26, 163–185.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pikirayi, I. (2013). Great Zimbabwe in historical archaeology: Reconceptualizing decline, abandonment, and reoccupation of an ancient polity, A.D. 1450–1900. Historical Archaeology, 47(1), 26–37.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pikirayi, I. (2014). Southern Africa: Historical archaeology. In C. Smith (Ed.), Encyclopedia of global archaeology (Vol. 10, pp. 6883–6887). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pope, P., & Lewis-Simpson, S. (Eds.). (2013). Exploring Atlantic transitions. The Society for Post-Medieval Archaeology Monograph Series, No. 8. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.

  • Posnansky, M. (1968). The excavation of an Ankole capital site at Bweyorere. Uganda Journal, 32(2), 165–182.

    Google Scholar 

  • Posnansky, M. (1969). Bigo bya Mugenyi. Uganda Journal, 33(2), 125–150.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ranger, T. O. (1983). The invention of tradition in Colonial Africa. In E. Hobsbawm & T. O. Ranger (Eds.), The invention of tradition (pp. 211–262). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ranger, T. O. (1999). Voices from the rocks: Nature, culture and history in the Matopos Hills of Zimbabwe. Harare: Baobab.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reid, R. (2011). Past and presentism: The ‘precolonial’ and the foreshortening of African history. The Journal of African History, 52(2), 135–155.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reid, A. M., & Lane, P. J. (2004). African historical archaeologies: An introductory consideration of scope and potential. In A. M. Reid & P. J. Lane (Eds.), African historical archaeologies (pp. 1–32). New York: Kluwer.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robertshaw, P. (2005). Review of “African connections: Archaeological perspectives on Africa and the Wider World” by P. Mitchell. 2005. AltaMira Press: Walnut Creet CA. Journal of African Archaeology, 3(2), 301–303.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosenau, P. M. (1992). Post-modernism and the social sciences: Insights, inroads, and intrusions. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Said, E. (1979). Orientalism. New York: Vintage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R. (1978). Historical archaeology: A structural approach in an African culture. Westport: Greenwood Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R. (1983). An alternative to a strictly materialist perspective: A review of historical archaeology, ethnoarchaeology, and symbolic approaches in African archaeology. American Antiquity, 48(1), 62–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R. (2006). Historical archaeology in Africa: Representation, social memory, and oral traditions. Lanham: AltaMira Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R. (2009a). What is postcolonial about archaeology in Africa? In P. R. Schmidt (Ed.), Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa (pp. 1–20). Santa Fe: SAR Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R. (Ed.). (2009b). Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa. Santa Fe: SAR Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R. (2010). Social memory and trauma in northwestern Tanzania: Organic, spontaneous community collaboration. Journal of Social Archaeology, 10(2), 255–279.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R. (2014a). Rediscovering community archaeology in Africa and reframing its practice. Journal of Community Archaeology & Heritage, 1(1), 37–55.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R. (2014b). Hardcore ethnography: Interrogating the intersection of disease, human rights and heritage. Heritage and Society, 7(2), 152–170.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R., & Mrozowski, S. (Eds.). (2013). Death of prehistory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R., & Patterson, T. C. (1995). Introduction: From constructing to making alternative histories. In P. R. Schmidt & T. C. Patterson (Eds.), Making alternative histories: The practice of archaeology and history in non-western settings (pp. 1–24). Santa Fe: SAR Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R., & Walz, J. (2007a). Re-representing African pasts through historical archaeology. American Antiquity, 72(1), 53–70.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R., & Walz, J. R. (2007b). Silences and mentions in history making. Historical Archaeology, 41(4), 129–146.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt, P. R., & Karega-Munene, (2010). An Africa-informed view of postcolonial archaeologies. In J. Lyndon & U. Rizvi (Eds.), Handbook of postcolonial archaeology. World Archaeological Congress Research Handbooks (pp. 215–226). Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.

  • Schrire, C. (1988). The historical archaeology of the impact of colonialism in 17th century South Africa. Antiquity, 62, 214–225.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schrire, C. (1995). Digging through darkness: Chronicles of an archaeologist. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schrire, C. (2002). Tigers in Africa: Stalking the past at the Cape of good hope. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Schuyler, R. L. (1978). Historical and historic sites archaeology as anthropology: Basic definitions and relationships. In R. L. Schuyler (Ed.), Historical archaeology: A guide to substantive and theoretical contributions (pp. 28–31). Baywood: Farmingdale.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silliman, S. W. (2005). Culture contact or colonialism? Challenges in the archaeology of native North America. American Antiquity, 70(4), 55–74.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stahl, A. B. (2001). Making history in Banda. Anthropological visions of Africa’s past. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stahl, A. B. (2004). Making history in Banda: Reflections on the construction of Africa’s Past. Historical Archaeology, 38(1), 50–65.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sutton, J. E. G. (1966). The archaeology and early peoples of the highlands of Kenya and northern Tanzania. AZANIA: Journal of the British Institute in Eastern Africa, 1, 37–57.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sutton, J. E. G. (1973). The archaeology of the Western Highlands of Kenya. No. 3. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa.

    Google Scholar 

  • Swanepoel, N., Esterhuysen, A., & Bonner, P. P. (Eds.). (2008). Five hundred years rediscovered: Southern African precedents and prospects. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Temu, A. J., & Swai, B. (1981). Historians and Africanist History—A critique: Post-colonial historiography examined. London: Zed Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vansina, J. (1965). Oral tradition: A study in historical methodology. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vansina, J. (1985). Oral tradition as history. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vansina, J. (1995). Historians, are archeologists your siblings?”. History in Africa, 22, 369–408.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wade, P. R. (2009). A systematics for interpreting past structures with possible cosmic references in sub-Saharan Africa. MSc Dissertation, University of Pretoria.

  • Walz, J. R. (2009). Archaeologies of disenchantment. In P. Schmidt (Ed.), Postcolonial archaeologies in Africa (pp. 21–38). Santa Fe NM: School for Advanced Research Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Were, G. S. (1967). A history of the Abaluyia of western Kenya: c. 1500–1930 (Vol. 2). Nairobi: East African Publishing House.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Peter R. Schmidt.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Schmidt, P.R., Pikirayi, I. Will Historical Archaeology Escape Its Western Prejudices to Become Relevant to Africa?. Arch 14, 443–471 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11759-018-9342-1

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11759-018-9342-1

Key Words

Navigation