Theorien und Erklärungsmodelle von Radikalisierungsprozessen im Kontext des Rechtsextremismus

Theory and explanation models of radicalization processes in the context of right-wing extremism

Zusammenfassung

Der Rechtsextremismus stellt eine der größten Herausforderungen der Gegenwart für die Sicherheitspolitik und das gesellschaftliche Miteinander dar, nicht zuletzt aufgrund des enormen Gewaltpotenzials, das rechtsextremistische Personen aufweisen können. Daraus ergibt sich die Notwendigkeit einer systematischen Untersuchung der Prozesse, die zu einer Übernahme rechtsextremer Einstellungen und zu rechtsextrem motivierten (Gewalt‑)Taten führen. Der vorliegende Artikel zeichnet zunächst ein kurzes Lagebild der bundesweiten Fallzahlen rechtsextrem assoziierter Straftaten. Es folgt eine Übersicht ausgewählter sozialer sowie psychologischer Mechanismen, die dabei helfen können, Radikalisierungsprozesse im Kontext des Rechtsextremismus zu verstehen. Dabei werden die Unterscheidung von einstellungs- und verhaltensbezogener Radikalisierung sowie insbesondere solche Faktoren hervorgehoben, die Radikalisierungsprozesse anstoßen oder extremistische Gewalt als Gipfel der Verhaltensradikalisierung begünstigen können. Abschließend werden Limitationen und methodische Probleme der Radikalisierungsforschung diskutiert.

Abstract

Right-wing extremism poses one of the major challenges for society and security policy, particularly because of the enormous potential for violence committed by radicalized individuals. Thus, there is a need for systematic investigations of the processes that result in the internalization of extremist beliefs and in far-right violence. Initially, the present article presents nationwide crime statistics of far-right offences in Germany. This is followed by an overview of social and psychological mechanisms, which could underlie radicalization processes in the context of far-right extremism. The article highlights the distinction between radicalization of beliefs and radicalization of behavior and discusses factors which could initiate radicalization and could lead to extremist violence. Finally, the limitations and methodological problems of the present state of radicalization research are discussed.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    An dieser Stelle sei auf entwicklungspsychologische Ansätze verwiesen, die sich mit der sozialisierenden und unterstützenden Rolle von radikalisierten Gruppen für entwicklungspsychologische Herausforderungen und deren Einfluss in sensiblen Phasen der Entwicklung beschäftigen (Beelmann 2017).

  2. 2.

    Kollektive Deprivation beschreibt eine (empfundene) Benachteiligung der sozialen (Eigen‑)Gruppe und steht der individuellen Deprivation gegenüber, die eine (empfundene) Benachteiligung der eigenen Person beschreibt.

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Knäble, J., Breiling, L. & Rettenberger, M. Theorien und Erklärungsmodelle von Radikalisierungsprozessen im Kontext des Rechtsextremismus. Forens Psychiatr Psychol Kriminol 15, 99–108 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11757-021-00659-8

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Radikalisierung
  • Rechtsextremismus
  • Rechtsterrorismus
  • Politisch motivierte Kriminalität
  • Rechte Gewalt

Keywords

  • Radicalization
  • Far-right extremism
  • Right-wing terrorism
  • Politically motivated criminality
  • Far-right violence