Die Prävalenz von psychosozialen Belastungen bei jugendlichen Straftätern: eine Metaanalyse

Prevalence of psychosocial stress in juvenile offenders: a meta-analysis

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Die Studien der letzten Jahre weisen bei der Entwicklung von Jugendkriminalität auf einen kumulativen Effekt von verschiedenen psychosozialen Belastungen hin. In der vorliegenden Metaanalyse sollen die relevanten Studien zu den Häufigkeiten von psychosozialen Belastungen bei jugendlichen Straftätern1 zusammengefasst werden. Dabei sollen nicht nur Missbrauchserlebnisse, sondern auch weitere Formen von Belastungen (z. B. Vernachlässigung, psychische und kriminelle Auffälligkeiten in der Familie etc.) berücksichtigt werden.

Methode

Es wurde eine systematische Literaturrecherche von allen deutsch- und englischsprachigen Originalstudien der letzten 10 Jahre (2008–2018) durchgeführt. In die vorliegende Metaanalyse wurden alle gefundenen Studien mit Selbstangaben zur Häufigkeit von psychosozialen Belastungen einbezogen. Es wurden Gesamtprävalenzen der Belastungsfaktoren nach dem „Random-effects“-Modell (REM) berechnet.

Resultate

Über die verschiedenen Studien zeigte sich eine große Heterogenität in den Methoden, die sich auch in den Häufigkeitsangaben widerspiegelten. Gemäß den ermittelten Gesamtprävalenzen berichteten die Jugendlichen, am häufigsten von einer Trennung der Eltern (49,4 %) und am wenigsten von Substanzmissbrauch im Haushalt (15,6 %) und von sexuellem Missbrauch (11,7 %) betroffen zu sein. Im Vergleich zur Allgemeinbevölkerung zeigten sich teilweise nur geringfügig höhere Prävalenzen bei emotionalem, körperlichem und sexuellem Missbrauch. Jedoch kamen emotionale Vernachlässigung, Bezeugung von familiärer Gewalt, Trennung der Eltern und Inhaftierung eines Familienmitglieds in den berücksichtigten Studien häufiger vor.

Schlussfolgerungen

Verschiedene psychosoziale Belastungen sollten in der forensischen Klink standardmäßig erhoben und in Bezug auf ihre Auswirkungen spezifisch beurteilt werden. Diesbezüglich sind gut validierte Instrumente erforderlich. Spezifische traumafokussierte Therapien und Ansätze zur Bearbeitung von dysfunktionalen Schemata sind für eine Teilgruppe von jugendlichen Straftätern möglicherweise hilfreich und präventiv für die Begehung von weiteren Delikten.

Abstract

Background

Studies in recent years have shown a cumulative effect regarding various psychosocial stress experiences on the development of juvenile delinquency. This meta-analysis summarized the relevant studies on the prevalence of psychosocial stress experiences in juvenile offenders. Not only exposure to abuse but also further adverse experiences in childhood and adolescence are of importance (e.g. neglect, mental health problems and criminality in the family).

Method

A systematic search of the literature of all German and English language original studies from the last 10 years (2008–2018) was conducted. All studies including self-reported prevalence rates of psychosocial stress experiences were considered in the presented meta-analysis. An overall prevalence rate of adverse factors was calculated by the use of a random effects model (REM).

Results

A large heterogeneity was found with respect to the methods used in the original studies, which is reflected in the prevalence rates. According to the overall prevalence rates, juveniles most often reported being affected by parental separation (49.4%) and least affected by substance abuse in the household (15.6%) and sexual abuse (11.7%). Compared to the general population, the prevalence rates of emotional, physical and sexual abuse were partly found to be only slightly higher; however, emotional neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation and imprisonment of a family member occurred more frequently in the studies considered.

Conclusion

Various psychosocial stress experiences should be documented in a standardized way in the clinical forensic setting and evaluated specifically with respect to their effects. For this purpose, validated instruments are needed. For a subgroup of juvenile offenders, specific trauma-focused therapies and approaches to processing of dysfunctional patterns are probably helpful and preventive for committing further offences.

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Aebi, M. Die Prävalenz von psychosozialen Belastungen bei jugendlichen Straftätern: eine Metaanalyse. Forens Psychiatr Psychol Kriminol 13, 166–177 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11757-019-00525-8

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Körperlicher Missbrauch
  • Sexueller Missbrauch
  • Belastende Kindheitserfahrungen
  • Jugenddelinquenz

Keywords

  • Physical abuse
  • Sexual abuse
  • Adverse childhood experiences
  • Juvenile delinquency