Heimaufenthalt in der Kindheit und Rückfallrisiko für Sexualdelinquenz im Erwachsenenalter: Mediieren potenziell traumatisierende Kindheitserfahrungen den Zusammenhang?

Placement in a children’s home in childhood and risk of recidivism for sexual delinquency in adulthood: do potentially traumatic childhood experiences mediate the association?

Zusammenfassung

Das Ziel der Studie bestand darin, unter Verwendung eines retrospektiven Forschungsdesigns den Zusammenhang zwischen einem Heimaufenthalt in der Kindheit und dem aktuellen Rückfallrisiko für erneute Sexualstraftaten zu untersuchen. Es wurde geprüft, ob dabei dem Erleben unterschiedlicher potenziell traumatisierender Kindheitserfahrungen (sexueller Missbrauch, körperliche Misshandlung, emotionale Vernachlässigung) eine vermittelnde Rolle zukommt. Die Stichprobe setzte sich aus 159 männlichen Sexualstraftätern zusammen, die zwischen 2010 und 2018 in der Sozialtherapeutischen Anstalt Hamburg (SothA-HH) inhaftiert waren. Die verwendeten Daten basieren auf Akteninformationen (u. a. Urteil, Bundeszentralregisterauszüge, Gutachten) und semistrukturierten Interviews. In dieser Studie wurden zwei Risikoinstrumente zur Erfassung des relativen Rückfallrisikos für erneute Sexualstraftaten verwendet: Static-99 zu Erfassung statischer, weitestgehend unveränderbarer Risikofaktoren und Stable-2007 zur Erfassung stabil-dynamischer Risikofaktoren, d.h. veränderbare Faktoren, die ohne therapeutische Interventionen relativ stabil bleiben. Die Gruppe mit einem Heimaufenthalt in der Kindheit wies einen niedrigeren sozioökonomischen Status, eine höhere Anzahl familiärer Risikofaktoren sowie eine frühere und stärker delinquente Entwicklung auf. Zudem erzielte sie ein höheres Rückfallrisiko. Für das stabil-dynamische, nicht jedoch für das statische Risiko wurde dieser Zusammenhang durch den kumulativen Effekt der Anzahl unterschiedlicher potenziell traumatisierender Kindheitserfahrungen vermittelt. Damit bestätigen die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Studie vorherige Befunde zum Zusammenhang von Heimaufenthalt und Delinquenz. Darüber hinaus verdeutlicht die vermittelnde Rolle potenziell traumatisierender Kindheitserfahrungen: Je mehr negativen Kindheitserfahrungen die Teilnehmer ausgesetzt waren, desto höher war das stabil-dynamische Rückfallrisiko. Diese Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass ein erheblicher Anteil von inhaftierten Sexualstraftätern, die negativen Kindheitserfahrungen ausgesetzt und im Kinderheim untergebracht waren, ein höheres Rückfallrisiko aufweisen und im Erwachsenenalter einer besonderen Betreuung und Kontrolle bedürfen.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to retrospectively examine if children’s home foster care has an impact on the risk of recidivism for sexual delinquency and if the number of domains of adverse childhood experiences (sexual abuse, physical violence and emotional neglect) mediates the association. The cohort consisted of 159 male sexual offenders serving sentences at the social therapeutic correctional facility of the Hamburg correctional services (SothA-HH) between 2010 and 2018. Data were collected from pretreatment ratings within the first weeks after admission to the SothA-HH. All data were derived from case file information (e. g., criminal records, court files and psychological reports) and from semi-structured one-to-one interviews. In this study two instruments were used for assessing the relative risk of sexual reoffending: Static-99 for current, mostly unchangeable risk factors and Stable-2007 for stable-dynamic risk factors, i.e. factors that are changeable but relatively stable without therapeutic treatment. The group with children’s home care experiences had a lower socioeconomic status, more familial risk factors as well as an early onset and a more severe criminal career. Furthermore, they had a higher risk of recidivism. For the stable-dynamic risk, this relationship was mediated by the cumulative effect of the number of domains of adverse childhood experiences but no significant mediation was found for the current risk. This study substantiates previous findings on the relationship between children’s home care and delinquent development. Beyond that, the mediating role of the number of domains of adverse childhood experiences shows that the more adverse childhood experiences the participants were exposed to, the higher the risk of stable-dynamic recidivism. These findings indicate that a large number of incarcerated sexual offenders who had adverse childhood experiences and have been in foster care have a higher risk of recidivism and need to be particularly monitored and controlled as adults.

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Correspondence to Dr. phil. Dipl.-Psych. Franziska Brunner.

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F. Brunner, E. Stück, D. Yoon, M. Rettenberger und P. Briken geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht.

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Alle beschriebenen Untersuchungen am Menschen wurden mit Zustimmung der zuständigen Ethik-Kommission, im Einklang mit nationalem Recht sowie gemäß der Deklaration von Helsinki von 1975 (in der aktuellen, überarbeiteten Fassung) durchgeführt. Von allen beteiligten Patienten liegt eine Einverständniserklärung vor.

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Franziska Brunner und Elisabeth Stück trugen zu gleichen Teilen zu der vorliegenden Studie bei.

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Brunner, F., Stück, E., Yoon, D. et al. Heimaufenthalt in der Kindheit und Rückfallrisiko für Sexualdelinquenz im Erwachsenenalter: Mediieren potenziell traumatisierende Kindheitserfahrungen den Zusammenhang?. Forens Psychiatr Psychol Kriminol 13, 178–187 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11757-019-00524-9

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Kinderheim
  • Sexueller Missbrauch
  • Körperliche Misshandlung
  • Emotionale Vernachlässigung; Sexualstraftäter

Keywords

  • Foster care
  • Sexual abuse
  • Physical abuse
  • Emotional neglect
  • Sexual offender