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Sexualstraftäter ohne und mit Migrationshintergrund aus dem Nahen Osten und Nordafrika

Tatverhalten und Rückfallprognose

Sexual offenders with and without a migration background from the Middle East and North Africa

Crime scene behavior and risk assessment

Zusammenfassung

Derzeit gibt es nur wenig Forschung zu Sexualdelinquenten, die eine Zuwanderungsgeschichte haben und nicht aus dem euroamerikanischen Raum stammen. Es ist daher weitestgehend unklar, ob und, wenn ja, worin sich Täter mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund (MH) hinsichtlich des Delikts, demografischer Charakteristika, spezifischer Tatverhaltensmerkmale sowie Tatthemen unterscheiden und wie valide standardisierte Instrumente zur Vorhersage einschlägiger Rückfälle für Täter mit MH sind. Die vorliegende Studie untersuchte diese Aspekte an einer Stichprobe von 950 Sexualdelinquenten in Deutschland kulturvergleichend. Es zeigte sich, dass Sexualstraftäter mit MH aus dem Nahen Osten und Nordafrika jünger waren, weniger einschlägige Vordelinquenz hatten und seltener für sexuelle Missbrauchsdelikte verurteilt wurden als Täter ohne MH. Mit Blick auf Tatverhaltensmerkmale schien Sexualdelinquenz bei Tätern mit MH aus dem Nahen Osten und Nordafrika weniger durch sexuell deviante Interessen als vielmehr durch Gelegenheiten, Gruppendynamik und allgemeine dissoziale Handlungsbereitschaften geprägt zu sein als bei Tätern ohne MH. Dies konnte auch bei der gesonderten Betrachtung homogener Deliktgruppen und hinsichtlich der Ausprägung zusammenfassender Tatthemen gefunden werden. Die Vorhersage einschlägiger Rückfälligkeit mithilfe des weit verbreiteten Instruments Static-99R war bei Tätern aus dem Nahen Osten und Nordafrika indessen nicht möglich. Dementgegen erwies sich die standardisierte Erfassung des Tatverhaltens mittels Tatbild-Risiko-Score (TBRS) als valides Verfahren in allen Tätergruppen. Es scheint somit empfehlenswert, gerade bei Tätern mit MH Merkmale des Tatverhaltens bei der Kriminalprognose zu berücksichtigen.

Abstract

Until now, there has hardly been any research done among sexual offenders who have a migration background (MB) or who do not descend from a European-American background. Thus, little is known about potential differences between offenders with a MB and offenders without a MB in terms of offence type, demographic factors, special characteristics of crime scene behavior, and behavioral themes. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the actuarial risk assessment tools are valid for offenders with a MB. To address these issues, 950 sexual offenders in Germany were examined via a cross-cultural approach. We found sexual offenders from the Near East and North Africa to be younger, with less previous sexual offences, and being less often convicted for child molestation compared to offenders without a MB. With respect to characteristics of crime scene behavior, sexual offences among offenders from the Near East and North Africa were less driven by deviant sexual interests, and instead were more related to opportunity, group dynamics, and an antisocial action readiness when compared to offenders without a MB. This difference was also found when more homogeneous groups concerning the offence type were analyzed and the comparison of various behavioral themes showed similar results. The prediction of future sex offences among offenders with a MB from the Near East and North Africa was not possible with the widely used Static-99R; however, the crime scene behavior risk (CBR) score proved to be a valid instrument for all subgroups of offenders. Consequently, we strongly recommend to use crime scene behavior assessment procedures, especially for offenders with a MB.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    „Eine Person hat einen Migrationshintergrund, wenn sie selbst oder mindestens ein Elternteil die deutsche Staatsangehörigkeit nicht durch Geburt besitzt“ (Statistisches Bundesamt 2017, S. 4).

  2. 2.

    In der Polizeilichen Kriminalstatistik werden auch nichtdeutsche Tatverdächtige erfasst, die gemäß Statistischem Bundesamt nicht zur ausländischen Bevölkerung zählen (z. B. Touristen). Zudem unterscheiden sich Deutsche und Nichtdeutsche in der Alters‑, Geschlechts- und Sozialstruktur, was einen direkten Vergleich der Kriminalitätsbelastung anhand dieser Daten unzulässig macht (Bundeskriminalamt 2016).

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Correspondence to Stefanie Schmidt.

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S. Schmidt und O. Pettke, geben an, dass kein Interessenkonflikt besteht. R.J.B. Lehmann und K.-P. Dahle sind Autoren der hier angewendeten Skalen der Tatthemen und des TBRS.

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Die Autoren Stefanie Schmidt und Olivia Pettke haben gleiche Anteile an der Arbeit und teilen sich die Erstautorenschaft.

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Schmidt, S., Pettke, O., Lehmann, R.J.B. et al. Sexualstraftäter ohne und mit Migrationshintergrund aus dem Nahen Osten und Nordafrika. Forens Psychiatr Psychol Kriminol 11, 322–334 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11757-017-0441-4

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Schlüsselwörter

  • Sexualstraftäter
  • Migrationshintergrund
  • Kriminalprognose
  • Tatverhalten
  • Tatthemen

Keywords

  • Sexual offenders
  • Migration background
  • Risk assessment
  • Crime scene behavior
  • Behavioral themes