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Sporadic occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria Woronichinia naegeliana and its bloom dynamics from the aquatic ecosystem of South India

Abstract

The present study reports a potentially toxic cyanobacterial species, Woronichinia naegeliana, which was observed along with a continuous bloom of Microcystis from a freshwater pond while monitoring cyanobacterial blooms along central Kerala, south India. Woronichinia is a toxic cyanobacterium usually found in freshwater ecosystems associated with other harmful cyanobacterial blooms. The monitoring was carried out from 2019 to 2020, and the high cell density of Woronichinia was observed in March 2020 (8.4 × 104 cells L−1). Hydrographic parameters studied revealed that the abundance of Woronichinia species was favoured by higher temperature (29 °C) with comparatively low nutrient values (NO3: 10.5 μmol L−1; PO4: 2.3 μmol L−1) while Microcystis desired a higher temperature (31 °C) with increased nutrient values (NO3: 96.78 μmol L−1; PO4: 5.88 μmol L−1).

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Abbreviations

Cells L−1 :

Cells per litre

°C:

Degree Celsius

NO3 :

Nitrate

PO4 :

Phosphate

μmol L−1 :

Micromole per litre

μm:

Micrometre

mL L−1 :

Millilitre per litre

pH:

Potential of hydrogen

sp.:

Species

CyanoHABs:

Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms

Lat.:

Latitude

Long.:

Longitude

PCA:

Principal Component Analysis

PRIMER V.6:

Plymouth Routines in Multivariate Ecological Research version 6

UV VIS:

Ultraviolet- visible

OH:

Hydroxide ion

mg m−3 :

Milligram per cubic metre

PC1:

Principal component 1

PC2:

Principal component 2

PC3:

Principal component 3

LM:

Light Microscope

PRM:

Pre monsoon

MON:

Monsoon

PM:

Post monsoon

Temp:

Temperature

DO:

Dissolved oxygen

N:

Nitrate

P:

Phosphate

S:

Silicate

Chl a :

Chlorophyll a

KHz:

Kilohertz

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Acknowledgments

The first author is thankful to the Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi, Kerala, India, for the award of the Junior Research Fellowship (U-JRF).

Funding

Cochin University of Science and Technology.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

RM wrote the manuscript with input from LCT. RM conducted the field study. RM and LCT contributed to the taxonomic identification. KBP supervised this study and provided research materials.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kunnatholickal Balakrishnan Padmakumar.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Mohan, R., Thomas, L.C. & Padmakumar, K.B. Sporadic occurrence of harmful cyanobacteria Woronichinia naegeliana and its bloom dynamics from the aquatic ecosystem of South India. Biologia (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11756-022-01146-z

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11756-022-01146-z

Keywords

  • Cyanobacterial blooms
  • Freshwater ecosystems
  • Woronichinia naegeliana
  • Microcystis aeruginosa
  • South India