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The karyotype of Pimelodella cristata (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) from Central Amazon basin: with a discussion of the chromosome variability in Pimelodella

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A Publisher Correction to this article was published on 04 April 2022

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Among the 23 genera belonging to the Heptapteridae family, Pimelodella stands out with the largest number of species, totaling 82 valid ones. Despite the few species characterized cytogenetically, this genus exhibits considerable variation in chromosomal markers. Thus, this study consists in a cytogenetic characterization of Pimelodella cristata collected in the Central Amazon region, contributing with new cytogenetic data for the genus. This species presented 2n (diploid number) = 46 (22 metacentric + 18 submetacentric + 2 subtelocentric + 4 acrocentric) and nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) coincident with the secondary constriction in the short arm of the acrocentric pair 22. In this same region, rich GC sites were also detected, as well as sequences of 18S ribosomal DNA (18S rDNA) through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), confirming the pattern of simple NORs. Multiple sites of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) were observed, totaling four terminal sites on metacentric chromosomes. P. cristata did not follow the heterochromatin distribution pattern frequently reported in the genus, revealing a larger amount of heterochromatin and some interstitial blocks. In addition to the cytogenetic characterization of one population of P. cristata from the Central Amazon region, this study brings a discussion about the main mechanisms related to the karyotypic variability of the genus, based on data available of Pimelodella in the literature associated with the geographic distribution of its species.

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Availability of data and material

all specimens analyzed in this study was deposited on the Ichthyological colletion of Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina (MZUEL). The vouchers numbers are available online in specieslink platform.

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Not applicable.

Change history



diploid number.

5S rDNA:

5S ribosomal DNA.

18S rDNA:

18S ribosomal DNA.




nucleolus organizing region stained with silver nitrate.


avidin-fluorescein isothiocyanate.


Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior–Brasil.

CMA3 :

chromomycin A3.


5-amino-propargyl-2’-deoxyuridine-5’-triphosphate conjugated with cyanine.


4’, 6-diamidino2-phenylindole.




fluorescence in situ hybridization.


fundamental number.


Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis.






Museu de Zoologia da Universidade Estadual de Londrina.


nucleolus organizing regions.


polymerase chain reaction.


polyethylene glycol.


Sistema de Autorização e Informação em Biodiversidade.






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The authors thank Dr. Jansen Alfredo Sampaio Zuanon (INPA), Dra. Lucia Helena Rapp Pydaniel (INPA) and Dr. José Luis Olivan Birindelli (UEL) for the identification of individuals and Mr. Patrik Viana for their assistance with sample collection. This research was supported by a grant from Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-Brazil (CAPES) - Finance code 001. They also thank designer Angela Takagui Ferreira for her contribution to the illustrative image of P. cristata.


Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES).

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Authors and Affiliations



MCT Designed the study, performed the experiments, and drafted the manuscript. FHT collected the specimens and performed some classical cytogenetic analyzis; JNCB, MCCL performed some FISH experiments and drafted the manuscript. ALD and EF, provides laboratorial structure and revised the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Mariana Costa Terra.

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Terra, M.C., Takagui, F.H., Baldissera, J.N.D.C. et al. The karyotype of Pimelodella cristata (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) from Central Amazon basin: with a discussion of the chromosome variability in Pimelodella. Biologia 77, 1995–2003 (2022).

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