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Anti‐aging effects of intermittent fasting: a potential alternative to calorie restriction?

Abstract

The multi-faceted process of aging encompasses various human pathologies such as diabetes, hypertension, neurological and cardiovascular diseases and cancer among many others. The hallmarks of aging has broadened the scope of eligible interventions aimed at delaying aging. Among the scores of anti-aging strategies, dietary restriction (DR) intervention has opened gamut of physiological benefits for humans. In this review, we elucidate briefly the two strict DR approaches practiced among humans especially for weight loss, but additionally for its metabolic benefits and lifespan elongating effects. Calorie restriction has been tried in diverse model organisms including humans, but CR has been challenging for humans due to its adverse effect. We discuss the metabolic pathways operating in case of intermittent fasting (IF) and calorie restriction (CR). Lastly we review a vital mechanism observed during fasting, ketogenesis, and scrutinize the latest emerging dieting trend keto diet with reference to IF.

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Abbreviations

AcAc:

Acetoacetate

ADF:

Alternate Day Fasting

AMP:

Adenosine monophosphate

AMPK:

AMP activated protein kinase

ATG:

Autophagy related genes

ATP:

Adenosine triphosphate

BBB:

Blood- brain barrier

BHB:

β- hydroxybutyrate

CALERIE:

Comprehensive assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy

CNS:

Central nervous system

CR:

Caloric restriction

CRM:

Calorie restriction mimetics

DR:

Dietary restriction

ELS:

Essential life span

FFA:

Free fatty acids

FGF 21:

Fibroblast growth factor 21

FOXO:

Forkhead box O

HDL:

High density lipoprotein

IF:

Intermittent fasting

IGF-1:

Insulin- like growth factor 1

IIS:

Insulin- like growth factor 1(IGF-1) signaling

KD:

Ketogenic diet

LDL:

Low density lipoprotein

Mtor:

Mammalian target of rapamycin

NAD+ :

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

NADH:

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen

NRF 2:

Nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2

PGC-1α:

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 α

PMRS:

Plasma membrane redox system

PPAR-α:

Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α

RBC:

Red blood cells

S6K1:

Ribosomal S6 kinase

SIRT:

Sirtuin

TF:

Transcription factor

TRF:

Time-Restricted Feeding

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Funding

This work was supported by a research grant to SIR from SERB-DST, (EMR/2016/006470), Govt of India. The work has also been supported by a research grant to Sukanya Bhoumik from Senior Research.

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Correspondence to Syed Ibrahim Rizvi.

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The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Bhoumik, S., Rizvi, S.I. Anti‐aging effects of intermittent fasting: a potential alternative to calorie restriction?. Biologia 76, 2329–2336 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11756-021-00770-5

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11756-021-00770-5

Keywords

  • Anti‐aging
  • Dietary restriction
  • Intermittent fasting
  • Ketogenesis
  • Keto diet