The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of acquired and innate immunity on spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion injury using a mouse model of spinal cord ischemia.
To define the ischemic duration that caused paraplegia, wild-type and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice were subjected to cross-clamping of the aorta for 7, 9, 9.5, or 10.5 min with ischemic preconditioning for intestinal protection. In wild-type and SCID mice with paraplegia, histological analyses were performed to investigate viable neurons, inflammatory cells, and reactive astrocytes at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h as well as 7 days after reperfusion.
In both wild-type and SCID mice, immediate paraplegia was induced by occlusion for 10.5 min. In both wild-type and SCID mice, no infiltration of T or B lymphocytes was observed at any point after reperfusion, but reactive astrocytes were clearly visible at 7 days after reperfusion, and the number of activated microglia peaked at 12 and 48 h after reperfusion. Although there was no significant difference, wild-type mice had a tendency to have more activated microglia than SCID mice at 12 h after reperfusion, and to have less viable neurons than SCID mice at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after reperfusion. There was a tendency that the frequency of immediate paraplegia in wild-type mice was more than SCID mice though no statistical difference was observed.
Innate immunity, rather than acquired immunity, may be involved in the developing immediate paraplegia in our mouse model.
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Blood brain barrier
Ischemic reperfusion injury
Left subclavian artery
Spinal cord ischemia
Severe combined immunodeficiency
Basso mouse scale
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We wish to thank Dr. Manabu Kakinohana (Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus), Dr. Akiko Tanaka (Department of Surgery, Section of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgery, University of Chicago) and Dr. Hisatomo Kowa (Division of Neurology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine) for their kind support.
Conflict of interest
Katsuhiro Yamanaka and other co-authors have no conflict of interest.
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Yamanaka, K., Sasaki, N., Fujita, Y. et al. Impact of acquired and innate immunity on spinal cord ischemia and reperfusion injury. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 64, 251–259 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11748-016-0629-0