Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

, Volume 36, Issue 2, pp 247–261 | Cite as

Customer betrayal and retaliation: when your best customers become your worst enemies

  • Yany GrégoireEmail author
  • Robert J. Fisher


After a service failure and a poor recovery, what leads loyal customers to try to punish a firm even if there is no material gain for doing so? We propose and test a justice-based model that incorporates perceived betrayal as the means to understand customer retaliation and the “love becomes hate” effect. The results suggest that betrayal is a key motivational force that leads customers to restore fairness by all means possible, including retaliation. In contrast to the majority of findings in the service literature, we propose and find that relationship quality has unfavorable effects on a customer’s response to a service recovery. As a relationship gains in strength, a violation of the fairness norm was found to have a stronger effect on the sense of betrayal experienced by customers. The model was tested on a national sample of airline passengers who complained to a consumer agency after an unsuccessful recovery.


Customer retaliation Customer betrayal Justice theory Customer relationship Survey Service failure and recovery Moderated regression analyses 



The authors gratefully acknowledge support for this research from the Social Sciences and Humanities Council of Canada, the Quebec Government “Fonds pour la formation de chercheurs et l’aide à la recherche,” the Richard Ivey School of Business, and the Canadian Transportation Agency. They also would like to thank Richard Elgar, Allison Johnson, Jean Johnson, Kelly Martin, Dave Sprott, Tom Tripp, and the PhD students from the course Marketing Theory (WSU) for their constructive suggestions on earlier versions of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MarketingWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.School of BusinessUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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