Hsieh, R.J., and J.E. Kinsella, Antioxidant: Flavonoids, in Adv. Food Nutrition Res. 33:233–341 (1989)
Hertog, M.G.L., and P.C.H. Hollmann, Potential Health Effects of the Dietary Flavonol Quercetin, Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 50:63–71 (1996).
Middleton, E., and C. Kandaswami, The Impact of Plant Flavonoids on Mammalian Biology: Implications for Immunity, Inflammation and Cancer, in Advances in Research Since 1986, edited by J.B. Harborne, Chapman and Hall, London, 1993, pp. 619–652.
Cody, V., E. Middleton, and J.B. Harborne, Plant Flavonoids in Biology and Medicine: Biochemical, Pharmacological and Structure Activity Relationship, Alan R. Liss, New York, 1986.
Kuehnau, J., The Flavonoids: A Class of Semi-Essential Food Components: Their Role in Human Nutrition, World Rev. Nutr. Diet. 24:117–191 (1976).
Katan, M.B., Flavonoids and Heart Disease, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65:1542–1543 (1997).
Hertog, M.G.L., E.J.M. Freskens, P.C.H. Hollman, M.B. Katan, and D.D. Kromhout, Dietary Antioxidative Flavonoids and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: The Zutphen Elderly Study, Lancet 342:1007–1011 (1993).
De Whalley, C.V., S.M. Rankin, J.R.S. Hoult, W. Jessup, and D.S. Leake, Flavonoid Inhibits the Oxidative Modification of Low-Density Lipoprotein, Biochem. Pharmacol. 39:1743–1750 (1990).
Negre-Sadvagyre, A., and R. Salvagyre, Quercetin Prevents the Cytotoxicity of Oxidised Low-Density Lipoprotein by Macrophages, Free Radicals Biol. Med. 12:101–106 (1992).
Keli, S.O., M.G.L. Hertog, E.J.M. Freskens, and D. Kromhout, Dietary Flavonoids, Antioxidants, Vitamins and the Incidence of Stroke, Arch. Intern. Med. 157:637–642 (1996).
Knekt, P., R. Jaervinen, A. Reunanen, and J. Maatela, Flavonoid Intake and Coronary Mortality in Finland: A Cohort Study, Brit. Med. J. 312:47–41 (1996).
Robak, J., and R.J. Grygleweski, Flavonoids as Scavengers of Superoxide Anion, Biochem. Pharmacol. 37:837–841 (1988).
Takahama, U., O2-Dependent and -Independent Photoxidation of Quercetin in the Presence and Absence of Riboflavin and Effects of Ascorbate on the Photooxidation, Photochem. Photobiol. 42:89–95 (1985).
Takahama, U., Suppression of Photoperoxidation by Quercetin and Its Glycosides in Spinach Chloroplasts, Ibid.:363–366 (1983).
Takahama, U., Inhibition of Lipoxygenase-Dependent Lipid Peroxidation by Quercetin: Mechanism of Antioxidative Function, Phytochemistry 24:1443–1446 (1985).
Husain, S.R., J. Cillard and P. Cillard, Hydroxyl Radical-Scavenging Activity of Flavonoids, Ibid.:2489–2491 (1987).
Takahama, U., Redox Reactions Between Kaempferol and Illuminated Chloroplasts, Plant Physiol. 71:598–601 (1983).
Takahama, U., Oxidation of Quercetin by Carotenoid Radical Generated in Illuminated Spinach Chloroplasts: The Effect of Ascorbate on Quercetin Oxidation, Cell. Physiol. 25:1181–1186 (1984).
Takahama, U., Hydrogen Peroxide Dependent Oxidation of Quercetin by Intact Spinach Chloroplasts, Plant Physiol. 74:852–857 (1984).
Mahgoub, S.E.O., and B.J.F. Hudson, Inhibition of the Pro-oxidant Activity of Copper by Primary Antioxidants in Lard, Food Chem. 16:97–101 (1985).
Ramanathan, L., and N.P. Das, Effect of Natural Copper Chelating Compounds on the Pro-oxidant Activity of Ascorbic Acid in Steam-Cooked Ground Fish, Intern. J. Food Sci. and Technol. 28:279–288 (1993).
Barrera-Arellano, D., and W. Esteves, Atividade Antioxidante de Substancias Fenolicas em Sistemas, Aquoso e Lipidico, Cienc. Tecnol. Aliment. 9:107–114 (1989).
Laughton, M.J., B. Halliwell, P.J. Evans, and J.R.S. Hoult, Antioxidant and Prooxidant Actions of the Plant Phenolics Quercetin, Gossypol and Myricetin, Biochem. Pharmacol. 38:2859–2865 (1989).
Gaspar, J., A. Rodrigues, A. Laires, F. Silva, S. Costa, J.J. Monteiro, C. Monteiro, and J. Rueff, On the Mechanism of Genotoxicity and Metabolism of Quercetin, Mutagenesis 5:445–449 (1994).
Hertog, M.G.L., P.C. Hollmann, and M.B. Katan, Content of Potentially Anticarcinogenic Flavonoids of 28 Vegetables and 9 Fruits Commonly Consumed in The Netherlands, Agric. Food Chem. 40:2379–2383 (1992).
Das, N.P., and T.A. Pereira, Effects of Flavonoids on Thermal Autooxidation of Palm Oil: Structure-Ativity Relationship, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67:255–258 (1990).
Shahidi, F., and U. Wanasundara, Effect of Natural Antioxidants on the Stability of Canola Oil, Dev. Food Sci. V37A:469–479 (1995).
Miura, S., J. Watanabe, M. Sano, T. Tomita, T. Osawa, Y. Hara, and I. Tomita, Effects of Various Natural Antioxidants on the Cu2+ Mediated Oxidative Modification of LDL, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 18:1–4 (1995).
Vinson, J.A., Y.A. Dabbagh, M.M. Serry, and J. Jang, Plant Flavonoids, Especially Tea Flavonols, Are Powerful Antioxidants Using an in vitro Oxidation Model for Heart Disease, J. Agric. Food Chem. 43:2800–2802 (1995).
Harper, K.A., A.D. Morton, and E.J. Rolff, Phenolic Compounds of Blackcurrant Juice and Their Protective Effects on Ascorbic Acid III. Mechanism of Ascorbic Acid Oxidation and Its Inhibition by Flavonoids, Food Technol. 4:255–267 (1969).
Rahman, A., Shahabuddin,, S.M. Hadi, and J.H. Parish, Complexes Involving Quercetin, DNA and Cu(II), Carcinogenesis 11:2001–2003 (1990).
Utaka, M., and A. Takeda, Copper(II)-Catalysed Oxidation of Quercetin and 3-Hydroxyflavone, J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.:1824–1826 (1985).
Yoshida, H., Influence of Fatty Acids of Different Unsaturation in the Oxidation of Purified Vegetable Oils During Microwave Irradiation, J. Sci. Food Agric. 62:41–47 (1993).
Gordon, M.H., and X.C. Weng, Antioxidant Properties of Extracts from Tanshen (Salvia miltiorhiza Bunge), Food Chem. 44:119–122 (1992).
Gordon, M.H., and E. Mursi, A Comparison of Oil Stability Based on the Metrohm Rancimat with Storage at 20°C, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71:649–651 (1994).
Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 4th edn., edited by David Firestone, American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, 1989.
Warner, K., E.N. Frankel, and T.L. Mounts, Flavour and Oxidative Stability of Soybean, Sunflower and Low Erucic Acid Rapeseed Oils, Ibid.:558–564 (1989).
Roginsky, V.A., T.K. Barsukova, A.A. Remorova, and W. Bors, Moderate Antioxidative Efficiencies of Flavonoids During Peroxidation of Methyl Linoleate in Homogeneous and Micellar Solutions, Ibid.:777–786 (1996).
Iwahasi, H., T. Ishii, R. Sugata and R. Kido, The Effects of Caffeic Acid and Its Related Catechols on Hydroxyl Radical Formation by 3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid, Ferric Chloride and Hydrogen Peroxide, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 276:242–247 (1990).
Hoffman, G., The Chemistry and Technology of Edible Oils and Fats and Their High Fat Products, Academic Press, London, 1989, pp. 27.