Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 74, Issue 11, pp 1457–1463 | Cite as

Kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil

Biocatalysis Articles

Abstract

Transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was investigated. Three stepwise and reversible reactions are believed to occur. The effect of variations in mixing intensity (Reynolds number=3,100 to 12,400) and temperature (30 to 70°C) on the rate of reaction were studied while the molar ratio of alcohol to triglycerol (6:1) and the concentration of catalyst (0.20 wt% based on soybean oil) were held constant. The variations in mixing intensity appear to effect the reaction parallel to the variations in temperature. A reaction mechanism consisting of an initial mass transfer-controlled region followed by a kinetically controlled region is proposed. The experimental data for the latter region appear to be a good fit into a second-order kinetic mechanism. The reaction rate constants and the activation energies were determined for all the forward and reverse reactions.

Key words

Biodiesel kinetics methyl esters mixing renewable fuels soybean oil transesterification triglycerides 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Freedman, B., R.O. Butterfield, and E.H. Pryde, Transesterification Kinetics of Soybean Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 63:1375–1380 (1986).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Freedman, B., E.H. Pryde, and T.L. Mounts, Variables Affecting the Yield of Fatty Esters from Transesterified Vegetable Oils, Ibid.:1638–1643 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahn, E., E. Koncar, M. Mittelbach, and R. Marr, A Low-Waste Process for the Production of Biodiesel, Sep. Sci. Tech. 30:2021–2033 (1995).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kusy, P.F., Transesterification of Vegetable Oils for Fuels, Proceedings of the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels, ASAE, St. Joseph, MI, 1982, pp. 127–137.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tanaka, Y., A. Okabe, and S. Ando, Method for the Preparation of a Lower Alkyl Ester or Fatty Acid, U.S. Patent 4,303,590 (1981).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sankaran, V., Transesterification of Triglycerides, U.S. Patent 4,966,876 (1990).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Farkas, L., O. Schachter, and B.H. Vromen, On the Rate of Acid-Catalyzed Transesterification of Butyl Alcohol and Ethyl Acetate, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 71:1991–1994 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Davies, B., and G.V. Jeffreys, Continuous Transesterification of Ethyl Alcohol and Butyl Acetate in a Sieve Plate Column. II. Batch Reaction Kinetics Studies, Trans. Inst. Chem. Eng. 51:271–274 (1973).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sridharan, R., and I.M. Mathai, Transesterification Reactions, J. Sci. Ind. Res. 33:178–187 (1974).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dufek, E.J., R.O. Butterfield, and E.N. Frankel, Esterification and Transesterification of 9(10)-Carboxystearic Acid and Its Methyl Esters. Kinetic Studies, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 49:302–306 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Solov’ev, V.V., B.N. Bychkov, G.N. Koshel, and L.A. Rodivilova, Kinetics of Esterification of C18 Unsaturated Fatty Acids by Methyl Alcohol, Zhurnal Prikladoni Khimii 62:2128–2131 (1989).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Erciyes, A.T., L. Dandik, and O.S. Kabasakal, The Kinetics of the Esterification Reaction Between Castor Oil and Oleic Acid, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 68:639–641 (1991).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yong, Y.P., W.R. Murphy, and E. Robinson, Esterification Using an Immobilized Enzyme on Porous Polymeric Supports, ChemE Res. Event:474–476 (1994).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moore, S.R., and J. Davies, The Kinetics of Lipase-Catalyzed Interesterification of Fats and Oils, Ibid.:526–528 (1994).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Method Ca 5a-40. Sampling and Analysis of Commercial Fats and Oils for Free Fatty Acids, in Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 4th edn., edited by W.E. Link, Champaign, American Oil Chemists’ Society, 1989.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of NebraskaLincoln

Personalised recommendations