Use of soy protein concentrates and lecithin products in diets fed to coho and atlantic salmon

  • P. B. Brown
  • K. A. Wilson
  • Y. Hodgin
  • J. D. Stanley


Aquacultural production is increasing in most parts of the world, establishing new and rapidly growing markets for various oil products. One of the more interesting nutritional requirements for aquatic animals is lecithin or phosphatidylcholine. In this paper, lecithin in aquaculture is reviewed with emphasis on freshwater fish and crayfish. Further, new data on use of lecithin and two soy protein concentrates in diets fed to coho and Atlantic salmon are presented. Juvenile coho and Atlantic salmon were fed either solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) or Promocalf® at 30% of the diet, Promoveal® at 10, 20 or 30% of the diet, or one of three new lecithin products at a constant level of 3% of the diet. Juvenile coho salmon fed SBM, Promocalf®, or Promoveal® at 30% of the diet exhibited depressed weight gain and an elevated feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to fish fed a positive control diet. Fish fed 10 or 20% Promoveal® had similar weight gain and FCR compared to fish fed the control diet. Coho salmon fed either of the three lecithin products (Aqualipid®, Blendmax®, or Centrol®) had similar weight gains and FCR values compared to fish fed the control diet. Whole-body proximate components were not as responsive to dietary treatments as weight gain and FCR data. Juvenile Atlantic salmon exhibited depressed weight gain only when fed 30% Promocalf® and all three lecithin products. Further, whole-body crude protein concentrations in fish fed the three lecithin products were depressed.

Key words

Crayfish fish phosphatidylcholine salmon soy protein concentrates 


  1. 1.
    Tacon, A.G.J., Feed Ingredients for Carnivorous Fish Species, Alternatives to Fish Meal and Other Fishery Resources, FAO Fisheries Circular No. 881, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1994, 35 pp.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Arnesen, P., L.E. Brattas, J. Olli, and A. Krogdahl, Soybean Carbohydrates Appear to Restrict the Utilization of Nutrients by Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), in The Current Status of Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture, The Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Feeding and Nutrition in Fish, edited by M. Takeda, and T. Watanabe, Laboratory of Fish Nutrition, Tokyo University of Fisheries, Tokyo, 1990, pp. 273–280.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cho, C.Y., H.S. Bayley, and S.J. Slinger, Partial Replacement of Herring Meal with Soybean Meal and Other Changes in a Diet for Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri), J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 31:1523–1528 (1974).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dabrowski, K., P. Poczyczynski, G. Kock, and B. Berger, Effect of Partially or Totally Replacing Fish Meal Protein by Soybean Meal Protein on Growth, Food Utilization and Proteolytic Enzyme Activities in Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri). New in vivo Test for Exocrine Pancreatic Secretion, Aquaculture 77:29–49 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gallagher, M.L., The Use of Soybean Meal as a Replacement for Fish Meal in Diets for Hybrid Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis × M. chrysops), Ibid.:119–127 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hendricks, H.G.C.J.M., T.S.G.A.M. Van Den Ingh, A. Krogdahl, J. Olli, and J.F.J.G. Koninkx, Binding of Soybean Agglutinin to Small Intestinal Brush Border Membranes and Brush Border Enzyme Activities in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), Ibid.:163–170 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kaushik, S.J., J.P. Cravedi, J.P. Lalles, J. Sumpter, B. Fauconneau, and M. Laroche, Partial or Total Replacement of Fish Meal by Soybean Protein on Growth, Protein Utilization, Potential Estrogenic or Antigenic Effects, Cholesterolemia and Flesh Quality in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Ibid.:257–274 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ketola, H.G., Mineral Supplementation of Diets Containing Soybean Meal as a Source of Protein for Rainbow Trout, Prog. Fish-Cult. 37:73–75 (1975).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krogdahl, A., T.B. Lea, and J. Olli, Soybean Proteinase Inhibitors Affect Intestinal Trypsin and Amino Acid Digestibilities in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 107A:215–219 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olli, J.J., K. Hjelmeland, and A. Krogdahl, Soybean Trypsin Inhibitors in Diets for Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar, L.): Effects on Nutrient Digestibilities and Trypsin in Pyloric Caeca Homogenate and Intestinal Content, Ibid.:923–928 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wilson, R.P., and W.E. Poe, Effects of Feeding Soybean Meal with Varying Trypsin Inhibitor Activities on Growth of Fingerling Channel Catfish, Aquaculture 46:19–25 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nutrient Requirements of Fish, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Poston, H.A., Performance of Rainbow Trout Fry Fed Supplemental Soy Lecithin and Choline, Prog. Fish-Cult 52:218–225 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Poston, H.A., Effect of Body Size on Growth, Survival, and Chemical Composition of Atlantic Salmon Fed Soy Lecithin and Choline, Ibid.:226–230 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Poston, H.A., Response of Rainbow Trout to Soy Lecithin, Choline, and Autoclaved Isolated Soy Protein, Ibid.:85–90 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lochman, R., W.R. McClain, and D.M. Gatlin, Evaluation of Practical Feed Formulations and Dietary Supplements for Red Swamp Crayfish, J. World Aquacul. Soc. 23:217–227 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Conklin, D.E., L.R. D’Abramo, C.E. Bordner, and N.A. Baum, A Successful Purified Diet for the Culture of Juvenile Lobsters: The Effect of Lecithin, Aquaculture 21:243–249 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Briggs, M.R.P., K. Jauncey, and J.H. Brown, The Cholesterol and Lecithin Requirements of Juvenile Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Fed Semi-purified Diets, Ibid.:121–129 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith, E.L., R.L. Hill, I.R. Lehman, R.J. Lefkowitz, P. Handler, and A. White, Principles of Biochemistry, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1983.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sargent, J., R.J. Henderson, and D.R. Tocher, The Lipids, in Fish Nutrition, edited by J.E. Halver, Academic Press, New York, 1989, pp. 154–219.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Paul, J.H., and J.S. Sharpe, The Relationship of Lecithin to the Growth Cycle in Crustacea, Biochem. J. 13:487–490 (1919).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hung, S.S.O., Choline Requirement of Hatchery-Produced Juvenile White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), Aquaculture 78:183–194 (1989).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kanazawa, A., Ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, in Handbook of Nutrient Requirements of Finfish, edited by R.P. Wilson, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1991, pp. 23–30.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kanazawa, A., Puffer Fish, Fugu rubripes, Ibid.Handbook of Nutrient Requirements of Finfish, edited by R.P. Wilson, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1991, 123-130.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kanazawa, A., Essential Fatty Acid and Lipid Requirement of Fish, in Nutrition and Feeding in Fish, edited by C.B. Cowey, A.M. Mackie, and J.G. Bell, Academic Press, New York, 1985, pp. 281–298.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chapelle, S., and G. Zwingelstein, Phospholipid Composition and Metabolism of Crustacean Gills as Related to Changes in Environmental Salinities: Relationship Between Na+-K+-ATPase Activity and Phospholipids, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 78B:363–372 (1984).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wolfe, D.A., P.V. Rao, and D.G. Cornwell, Studies on the Fatty Acid Composition of Crayfish Lipids, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 42:633–637 (1965).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zandee, D.I., Metabolism in the Crayfish Astacus astacus (L.). IV.—The Fatty Acid Composition and the Biosynthesis of the Fatty Acids, Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochem. 74:614–626 (1966).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    O’Connor, J.D., and L.I. Gilbert, Aspects of Lipid Metabolism in Crustaceans, Am. Zoologist 8:529–539 (1968).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Okajima, H., K. Ishii, and H. Watanabe, Studies on Lipids of Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. I. Furanoid Fatty Acids, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 32:3281–3286 (1984).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Farkas, T., and S. Herodek, Paper Chromatographic Studies on the Fatty Acid Composition of Some Fresh Water Crustaceans, Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hungarica 10:85–90 (1959).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Farkas, T., and J.C. Nevenzel, Temperature Acclimation in the Crayfish: Effects on Phospholipid Fatty Acids, Lipids 16:341–346 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Harding, D.E., O.W. Allen, Jr., and R.P. Wilson, Sulfur Amino Acid Requirement of Channel Catfish: l-Methionine and l-Cystine, J. Nutr. 107:2031–2035 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Walton, M.J., C.B. Cowey, and J.W. Adron, Methionine Metabolism in Rainbow Trout Fed Diets of Differing Methionine and Cystine Content, Ibid.:1525–1535 (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rumsey, G.L., J.W. Page, and M.L. Scott, Methionine and Cystine Requirements of Rainbow Trout, Prog. Fish-Cult. 45:139–143 (1983).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moon, H.Y., and D.M. Gatlin, Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirement of Juvenile Red Drum, Sciaenops ocellatus, Aquaculture 95:97–106 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Griffin, M.E., M.R. White, and P.B. Brown, Total Sulfur Amino Acid Requirement and Cysteine Replacement Value for Juvenile Hybrid Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis × M. chrysops), Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 108A:423–429 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    She, Q.B., T. Hayakawa, and T. Haruhito, Alteration in the Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis of Rat Liver Microsomes Caused by Vitamin B6 Deficiency, Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 59:163–167 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hardy, R., Pacific Salmon, Oncorhynchus spp., in Handbook of Nutrient Requirements of Finfish, edited by R.P. Wilson, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1991, pp. 105–122.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Griffin, M.E., P.B. Brown, and A. Grant, Dietary Lysine Requirement of Juvenile Hybrid Striped Bass, J. Nutr. 122:1332–1337 (1992).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 15th edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington, 1990.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Folch, J., M. Lees, and G.H. Sloan-Stanley, A Simple Method for the Isolation and Purification of Total Lipids from Animal Tissues, J. Biol. Chem. 29:497–509 (1957).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    SAS/STAT User’s Guide, version 6, 4th edn., SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. B. Brown
    • 1
  • K. A. Wilson
    • 1
  • Y. Hodgin
    • 1
  • J. D. Stanley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forestry and Natural ResourcesPurdue UniversityWest Lafayette

Personalised recommendations