Amino Acid Profiles of 44 Soybean Lines and ACE-I Inhibitory Activities of Peptide Fractions from Selected Lines


Soybeans are cultivated in the United States chiefly for cooking oil, while the residue after oil extraction (soybean meal) is mostly used in animal feed formulations. High protein content in the defatted soybean meals led to the extraction of pure protein and its application in food products. We selected 44 soybean lines to determine their moisture and protein contents, and their amino acid composition was investigated. Soybean lines with high protein content, one high yielding (R95-1705), and two high oleic acid (N98-4445A, S03-543CR), were selected for protein isolate preparation, hydrolysis using alcalase and gastro-intestinal (GI) resistance. Furthermore, the GI resistant hydrolysates were fractionated and tested for angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) inhibition activity. The amino acid analysis showed high methionine in the high protein and fatty acid lines (R05-4494 and R05-5491), and high cysteine content in one of the high oleic acid soybean line CRR05-188 in comparison to the check lines (UA-4805 and 5601-T). The protein isolate with the highest purity (90–93 %) was derived from the selected lines N98-4445A and S03-543CR, and hydrolyzed using alcalase enzyme. The protein hydrolysates (500 µg/mL) showed inhibition of the ACE-I by 49 %. The results from this study will promote the use of high oleic acid soybeans as a source of protein and peptides with functional activities.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. 1.

    United States Department of Agriculture–Economic Research Service (2012) Soybeans and oil crops—related data and statistics. Accessed from (Citation in the text: USDA-ERS 2012)

  2. 2.

    Cober ER, Voldenga HD (2000) Developing high-protein, high-yield soybean populations and lines. Crop Sci 40:39–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Cahoon EB (2003) Genetic enhancement of soybean oil for industrial uses: prospects and challenges. AgBioForum 6(1 and 2):11–13

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Reynolds K, Chin A, Lees KA, Nguyen A, Bujnowski D, He J (2006) A Meta-analysis of the effect of soy protein supplementation on serum lipids. Am J Cardiol 98(5):633–640

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    de Moura JMLN, Campbell K, Mahfuz A, Jung S, Glatz CE, Johnson L (2008) Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of oil and protein from soybeans and cream de-emulsification. J Am Oil Chem Soc 85:985–995

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Uzzan M, Labuza TP (2004) Critical issues in R&D of soy isoflavone—enriched foods and dietary supplements. J Food Sci 69(3):77–86

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Genovese MI, Barbosa ACL, Pinto MD, Lajolo FM (2007) Commercial soy protein ingredients as isoflavones sources for functional foods. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 62:53–58

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Clemente TE, Cahoon EB (2009) Soybean oil: genetic approaches for modification of functionality and total content. Plant Physiol 151(3):1030–1040

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    O’Keefe SF, Wiley A, knauft DA (1993) Comparison of oxidative stability of high- and normal-oleic peanut oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 70(5):489–492

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Warner K, Knowlton S (1997) Frying quality and oxidative stability of high-oleic corn oils. J Am Oil Chem Soc 74(10):1317–1322

  11. 11.

    Takagi Y, Rehman SM (1996) Inheritance of high oleic acid content in the seed oil of soybean mutant M23. Theor Appl Genet 92(2):179–182

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Mazur B, Krebbers E, Tingey S (1999) Gene discovery and product development for grain quality traits. Science 285(5426):372–375

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Monteros MJ, Burton JW, Boerma HR (2008) Molecular mapping and confirmation of QTLs associated with oleic acid content in N00-3350 soybean. Crop Sci 48:2223–2234

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Dixon WJ (1996) High oleic acid transgenic soybean—biotechnology consultation memorandum of conference, USDA. Accessed from

  15. 15.

    Health Canada (2000) high oleic soybean lines G94-1, G94-19, and G168, 2000. Novel food information—food biotechnology. Food directorate, health products and food branch, health. Accessed from

  16. 16.

    Sebastia CH, Marsolais F, Saravitz C, Israel DW, Dewey RE, Huber SC (2005) Metabolic profiling of amino acids in soybean developing seeds: possible role of asparagine in the control of storage product accumulation. J Exp Bot 56:1951–1964

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Krishnan HB (2005) Engineering soybean for enhanced sulfur amino acid content. Crop Sci 45:454–461

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Leppälä AP (2000) Bioactive peptides derived from bovine whey proteins: opioid and ace-inhibitory peptides. Trends Food Sci Technol 11(9–10):347–356

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Palatini P, Julius S (2009) The role of cardiac autonomic function in hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Curr Hypertens Rep 11(3):199–205

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Boudier HAJS, le Noble JLML, Messing MWJ, Huijberts MSP, le Noble FAC, van Essen H 1(992) The microcirculation and hypertension. J Hypertens 10(7):S147–S156

  21. 21.

    Wu J, Ding X (2002) Characterization of inhibition and stability of soy-protein-derived angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides. Food Res Int 35(4):367–375

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Kuba M, Tana C, Tawata M (2005) Production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from soybean protein with Monascus purpureus acid proteinase. Process Biochem 40(6):2191–2196

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Margatan W, Ruud K, Wang Q, Markowski T, Ismail B (2013) Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory activity of soy protein subjected to selective hydrolysis and thermal processing. J Agric Food Chem 61(14):3460–3467

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Rayaprolu SJ, Hettiarachchy NS, Chen P, Kannan A, Mauromostakos A (2014) Peptides derived from high oleic acid soybean meals inhibit colon, liver and lung cancer cell growth. Food Res Int 50(1):282–288

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    AACC (2000) Official method: 44-15A, “Moisture content determination—air oven method”, vol 2, 2nd edn. American Association of Cereal Chemists approved methods, St. Paul, MN

  26. 26.

    AOAC (1997) Official method: 994.12, “Amino acids in feeds”—performic acid oxidation with acid hydrolysis-sodium metabisulfite method. Official methods of analysis, 16th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA

  27. 27.

    Kannan A, Hettiarachchy NS, Johnson MG, Nannapaneni R (2008) Human colon and liver cancer cell proliferation inhibition by peptide hydrolysates derived from heat-stabilized defatted rice bran. J Agric Food Chem 56:11643–11647

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Cushman DW, Cheung HS (1971) Spectrophotometric assay and properties of the angiotensin-converting enzyme of rabbit lung. Biochem Pharmacol 20(7):1637–1648

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Kim SL, Berhow MA, Kim JT, Chi HY, Lee SJ, Chung IM (2006) Evaluation of soyasaponin, isoflavone, protein, lipid, and free sugar accumulation in developing soybean seeds. J Agric Food Chem 54(26):10003–10010

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Newburg DS, Fillios LC (1982) Brain development in neonatal rats nursing asparagine-deprived dams. Dev Neurosci 5(4):332–344

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Tuohy KM, Probert HM, Smejkal CW, Gibson GR (2003) Using probiotics and prebiotics to improve gut health. Drug Discov Today 8(15):692–700

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Smriga M, Kameishi M, Uneyama H, Torii K (2002) Dietary l-lysine deficiency increases stress-induced anxiety and fecal excretion in rats. J Nutr 132(12):3744–3746

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Iqbal A, Khalil IA, Ateeq N, Sayyar Khan M (2006) Nutritional quality of important food legumes. Food Chem 97(2):331–335

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Eyre DR, Paz MA, Gallop PM (1984) Cross-linking in collagen and elastin. Annu Rev Biochem 53:717–748

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Reiser K, McCormick RJ, Rucker RB (1992) Enzymatic and non-enzymatic cross-linking of collagen and elastin. FASEB J 6(7):2439–2449

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Akagawa M, Suyama K (2001) Characterization of a model compound for the lysine tyrosylquinone cofactor of lysyl oxidase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 281:193–199

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Fujiwara T, Hirai MY, Chino M, Komeda Y, Naito S (1992) Effects of sulfur nutrition on expression of the soybean seed storage protein genes in transgenic petunia. Plant Physiol 99(1):263–268

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Krishnan HB, Bennett JO, Kim WS, Krishnan AH, Mawhinney TP (2005) Nitrogen lowers the sulfur amino acid content of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) by regulating the accumulation of Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor. J Agric Food Chem 53(16):6347–6354

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Wu WU, Hettiarachchy NS, Qi M (1998) Hydrophobicity, solubility, and emulsifying properties of soy protein peptides prepared by papain modification and ultrafiltration. J Am Oil Chem Soc 75(7):845–850

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Roberts PR, Burney JD, Black KW, Zaloga GP (1998) Effect of chain length on absorption of biologically active peptides from the gastrointestinal tract. Digestion 60(4):332–337

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Lee S-H, Qian Z-J, Kim S-K (2010) A novel angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitory peptide from tuna frame protein hydrolysate and its antihypertensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Food Chem 118(1):96–102

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Lassissi TA, Hettiarachchy NS, Rayaprolu SJ, Kannan A, Davis M (2014) Functional properties and Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity of soy–whey proteins and fractions. Food Res Int 64:598–602

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    Kuba M, Tana C, Tawata S, Yasuda M (2005) Production of angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from soybean protein with Monascus purpureus acid proteinase. Process Biochem 40(6):2191–2196

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Adams MR, Golden DL, Franke AA, Potter SM, Smith HS, Anthony MS (2004) Dietary soy β-conglycinin (7S globulin) inhibits atherosclerosis in mice. J Nutr 134(3):511–516

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Balti R, Nedjar-Arroume N, Bougatef A, Guillochon D, Nasri M (2010) Three novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using digestive proteases. Food Res Int 43(4):1136–1143

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Navam Hettiarachchy.

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rayaprolu, S., Hettiarachchy, N., Horax, R. et al. Amino Acid Profiles of 44 Soybean Lines and ACE-I Inhibitory Activities of Peptide Fractions from Selected Lines. J Am Oil Chem Soc 92, 1023–1033 (2015).

Download citation


  • High oleic acid soybean lines
  • Seed protein
  • Amino acid analysis
  • Protein hydrolysates
  • ACE-I inhibition