Oxidative Stability and Changes in Chemical Composition of Extra Virgin Olive Oils After Short-Term Deep-Frying of French Fries

Abstract

We aimed at investigating oxidative stability and changes in fatty acid and tocopherol composition of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in comparison with refined seed oils during short-term deep-frying of French fries, and changes in the composition of the French fries deep-fried in EVOO. EVOO samples from Spain, Brazil, and Portugal, and refined seed oils of soybean and sunflower were studied. Oil samples were used for deep-frying of French fries at 180 °C, for up to 75 min of successive frying. Tocopherol and fatty acid composition were determined in fresh and spent vegetable oils. Tocopherol, fatty acid, and volatile composition (by SPME–GC–MS) were also determined in French fries deep-fried in EVOO. Oil oxidation was monitored by peroxide, acid, and p-anisidine values, and by Rancimat after deep-frying. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used as a proxy of the quality of the spent oils. EVOOs presented the lowest degree of oleic and linoleic acids losses, low formation of free fatty acids and carbonyl compounds, and were highly stable after deep-frying. In addition, oleic acid, tocopherols, and flavor compounds were transferred from EVOO into the French fries. In conclusion, EVOOs were more stable than refined seed oils during short-term deep-frying of French fries and also contributed to enhance the nutritional value, and possibly improve the flavor, of the fries prepared in EVOO.

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Abbreviations

AV:

Acid value

DAG:

Diacylglycerol

DSC:

Differential scanning calorimetry

EVOO:

Extra virgin olive oil

FAMEs:

Fatty acid methyl esters

FFA:

Free fatty acid

GC:

Gas chromatography

HPLC:

High performance liquid chromatography

IP:

Induction period

IV:

Iodine value

MAG:

Monoacylglicerol

MUFA:

Monounsatured fatty acids

PUFA:

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

p-Av:

p-Anisidine value

PV:

Peroxide value

TAG:

Triacylglycerol

Total-Toc:

Total tocopherols

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Acknowledgments

We thank Alma Brasilis® (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), which kindly provided the three commercial samples of European EVOOs. The financial support of FAPERJ, CAPES, and CNPq (Brazil) is greatly acknowledged. E. Akil was a recipient of an MSc scholarship, A.M.M. Costa was a recipient of a DSc scholarship, and V. Calado was a recipient of a research fellowship, from CNPq (Brazil). V.N.Castelo-Branco was a recipient of a DSc scholarship from CAPES (Brazil).

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest to disclose.

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Correspondence to Alexandre Guedes Torres.

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Akil, E., Castelo-Branco, V.N., Costa, A.M.M. et al. Oxidative Stability and Changes in Chemical Composition of Extra Virgin Olive Oils After Short-Term Deep-Frying of French Fries. J Am Oil Chem Soc 92, 409–421 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-015-2599-2

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Keywords

  • Olive oil quality
  • Thermal oxidation
  • DSC
  • Deep-frying
  • Stability
  • Tocopherols