Composition of Coconut Testa, Coconut Kernel and its Oil

Abstract

Testa, a by-product from the coconut processing industry is getting wasted. A study was carried out to utilize testa as a source of edible oil. The composition of the oils from testa of wet coconut (WCT) and copra (CT) were evaluated and compared with wet coconut whole, copra whole, wet coconut white kernel and copra white kernel. The samples had fat as a major component ranging from 34 to 63 %. Oils had 90–98.2 % triacylglycerols, 1–8 % diacylglycerols and 0.4–2 % monoacylglycerols. The triacylglycerol composition of oil from WCT had decreased trilaurin and increased triolein. Lauric acid content of CT was 40.9 % and WCT was 32.4 % whereas other oils were 50–53 %. Oils from testa were richer in monounsaturates and polyunsaturates than other coconut oil samples. The phenolics and phytosterols content were 0.2–1.9 % and 31–51 mg%, respectively. The total phenolic acids and tocopherol content of oils from CT (313.9 μg%, 22.3 mg%) and WCT (389.0 μg%, 100.1 mg%) were higher than other samples (94.8–291.4 μg%, 2.5–6.7 mg%). These studies indicated that the oil from coconut testa contained more of natural antioxidants such as tocopherols, tocotrienols and phenolics compared to coconut kernel oil and may confer health benefits.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Abbreviations

WCW:

Wet coconut whole

WCWK:

Wet coconut white kernel

WCT:

Wet coconut testa

CW:

Copra whole

CWK:

Copra white kernel

CT:

Copra testa

K:

Potassium

Na:

Sodium

Ca:

Calcium

Fe:

Iron

Zn:

Zinc

TPC:

Total phenolics content

TAG:

Triacylglycerols

DAG:

Diacylglycerols

MAG:

Monoacylglycerols

References

  1. 1.

    Gopala Krishna AG, Raj G, Bhatnagar AS, Prasanth Kumar PK, Chandrashekar P (2010) Coconut oil: chemistry, production and its applications: a review. Ind Coconut J LIII 3:15–27

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Kiyasu JY, Bloom B, Chaikoff IL (1952) The portal transport of absorbed fatty acids. J Biol Chem 199:415–419

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Bhatnagar AS, Prasanth Kumar PK, Hemavathi J, Gopala Krishna AG (2009) Fatty acid composition, oxidative stability, and radical scavenging activity of vegetable oil blends with coconut oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 86:991–999

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Seneviratne KN, Dissanayake DMS (2005) Effect of method of extraction on the quality of coconut oil. J Sci Univ Kelaniva 2:63–72

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Li-Chen W, Hsiu-Wen H, Yun-Chen C, Chih-Chung C, Yu-In L, Ja-an AH (2005) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of red pitaya. Food Chem 17:341–346

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Bravo L (1998) Polyphenols: chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56:317–333

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Duthie M (2000) Plant polyphenols in cancer and heart disease: implications as nutritional antioxidants. Nutr Res Rev 13:79–106

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Huang Z, Wang B, Eaves DH, Shikany JM, Pace RD (2007) Phenolic compound profile of selected vegetables frequently consumed by African Americans in the southeast United States. Food Chem 103:1395–1402

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Weihrauch JL, Gardner JM (1978) Sterol content of foods of plant origin. J Am Diet Assoc 73:39–47

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Wagner KH, Wotruba F, Elmadfa I (2001) Antioxidative potential of tocotrienols and tocopherols in coconut fat at different oxidation temperatures. European J Lip Sci Technol 103:746–751

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Nevin KG, Rajamohan T (2004) Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation. Clin Biochem 37:830–835

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Seneviratne KN, HapuarachchI CD, Ekanayake S (2009) Comparison of the phenolic-dependent antioxidant properties of coconut oil extracted under cold and hot conditions. Food Chem 114:1444–1449

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Official methods of the American Oil Chemists Society (1998) 4th edn. AOCS method no. Ac 2–41 (1997) Ac 3-44, Ba 5a-49 (1998), Cd 8-53 (1998), Cd11c-93 (2007), Ce 8-89 (2007), 6th edn. American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    AOAC (1997) 17th edition, pp 684–697, AOCS (1980) Official Method of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemist Washington DC, USA

  15. 15.

    Raghuramulu N, Nair KM, Kalyanasundram. (2003) A manual for laboratory techniques. National institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad

    Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Swe PZ, Che Man YB, Ghazali HM (1996) Improved NARPHPLC method for separating triglycerides of palm olein and its solid fractions obtained at low temperature storage. Food Chem 56:181–186

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Seneviratne KN, Dissanayake DSM (2008) Variation of phenolic content in coconut oil extracted by two conventional methods. Int J Food Sci Technol 43:597–602

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Osawa T, Namiki M (1981) A novel type of antioxidant isolated from leaf wax of eucalyptus leaves. Agri Biol Chem 45:735–739

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Sabir SM, Hayat I, Gardezi SDA (2003) Estimation of sterols in edible fats and oils. Pak J Nutr 2(3):178–181

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Brenes M, Garcı’a A, Garcı′a P, Garrido A (2000) Rapid and complete extraction of phenols from olive oil and determination by means of a coulometric electrode array system. J Agri Food Chem 48:5178–5183

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Neo YP, Ariffin A, Tan CP, Tan YA (2010) Phenolic acid analysis and antioxidant activity assessment of oil palm (E. guineensis) fruit extracts. Food Chem 122:353–359

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Steele RGD, Torrie JH (1980) Principles and procedures of statistics. Mc Graw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Solangi AH, Iqbal MZ (2011) Chemical composition of meat (kernel) and nut water of major coconut (Cocos nucifera) cultivars at coastal area of Pakistan. Pak J Bot 43(1):357–363

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Obasi NA, Ukadilonu J, Eze E, Akubugwo EI, Okorie UC (2012) Proximate composition, extraction, characterization and comparative assessment of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and melon (Colocynthis citrullus) seeds and seed oils. Pak J Biol Sci 15(1):1–9

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Rao CV, Newmark HL, Reddy BS (1998) Chemo-preventive effect of Squalene on colon cancer. Carcinogenesis 19:287–290

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Santoso U, Kubo K, Ota T, Tadokorob T, Maekawab A (1996) Nutrient composition of kopyor coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.). Food Chem 51(2):299–304

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Lo SK, Tan CP, Long K, Yusoff M, Lai OM (2008) Diacylglycerol oil-properties, processes and products: a review. Food Bioprocess Technol 1:223–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Yasukawa T, Katsuragi Y, Katsuragi Y, Yasukawa T, Matsuo N, Flickinger BD, Tokimitsu I, Matlock MG (eds) (2004) Diacylglycerol oil. AOCS Press, Champaign, pp 1–15

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Raja Rajan RG, Prasanth Kumar PK, Gopala Krishna AG (2010) Tocopherols and phytosterols content of coconut oil blends prepared for coconut oil consumers and non-coconut oil consumers. Ind Coconut J LIII 4:16–20

    Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Henna Lu FS, Tan PP (2009) A comparative study of storage stability in virgin coconut oil and extra virgin olive oil upon thermal treatment. Int Food Res J 16:343–354

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Seneviratne KN, HapuarachchI CD, Ekanayake S (2009) Comparison of the phenolic-dependent antioxidant properties of coconut oil extracted under cold and hot conditions. Food Chem 114:1444–1449

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Marina AM, Che Man YB, Nazimah SAH, Amin I (2008) Antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids of virgin coconut oil. Int J Food Sci Nutr 60:1–10

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to Director CSIR-CFTRI, Mysore for providing infrastructural facilities and The Coconut Development Board, Kochi, for funding the project.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to A. G. Gopala Krishna.

About this article

Cite this article

Appaiah, P., Sunil, L., Prasanth Kumar, P.K. et al. Composition of Coconut Testa, Coconut Kernel and its Oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 91, 917–924 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-014-2447-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Acylglycerols
  • Coconut kernel
  • Coconut testa
  • Copra
  • Fatty acids
  • Oil
  • Phenolics
  • Phytosterols
  • Tocopherols
  • Triacylglycerols