Skip to main content

Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids

Abstract

Marine phospholipids (PL) are potential ingredients for food fortification due to its numerous advantages. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether a fermented milk product fortified with a mixture of marine PL and fish oil had better oxidative stability than a fermented milk product fortified with fish oil alone. Fortification of a fermented milk product with marine PL was performed by incorporating 1 % w/w lipids, either in the form of neat oil or in the form of a pre-emulsion. Lipid oxidation was investigated in the neat emulsions and fortified products by the measurements of primary, secondary volatile oxidation products and tocopherol content upon 32 days storage at 2 °C and 28 days storage at 5 °C, respectively. Analyses of particle size distribution, viscosity and microbial growth were also performed. In addition, sensory attributes such as sour, fishy and rancid flavor/odor were evaluated in fortified products by a trained panel. The results obtained showed that incorporation of a mixture of marine PL and fish oil into fermented milk products decreased the oxidative stability and sensory quality of fortified products. The pH-dependent behavior of iron seemed to be the main factor that influenced the lipid oxidation in the marine PL emulsion and fermented milk system. In addition, both oxidative stability and sensory acceptability of fortified products varied depending on the quality of the marine PL used for fortification.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. 1.

    Peng JL, Larondelle Y, Pham D, Ackman RG, Rollin X (2003) Polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles of whole body phospholipids and triacylglycerols in anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) fry. Comp Biochem Phys B 134:335–348

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Wijendran V, Huang MC, Diau GY, Boehm G, Nathanielsz PW, Brenna JT (2002) Efficacy of dietary arachidonic acid provided as triglyceride or phospholipid as substrates for brain arachidonic acid accretion in baboon neonates. Pediatr Res 51:265–272

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Cho SY, Joo DS, Choi HG, Nara E, Miyashita K (2001) Oxidative stability of lipids from squid tissues. Fish Sci 67:738–743

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Moriya H, Kuniminato T, Hosokawa M, Fukunaga K, Nishiyama T, Miyashita K (2007) Oxidative stability of salmon and herring roe lipids and their dietary effect on plasma cholesterol levels of rats. Fish Sci 73:668–674

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ierna M, Kerr A, Scales H, Berge K, Griinari M (2010) Supplementation of diet with krill oil protects against experimental rheumatoid arthritis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 11:136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Narayan B, Miyashita K, Hosakawa M (2006) Physiological effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): a review. Food Rev Int 22:291–307

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Lu FSH, Nielsen NS, Timm-Heinrich M, Jacobsen C (2011) Oxidative stability of marine phospholipids in the liposomal form and their applications. Lipids 46:3–23

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Trautwein EA (2001) n-3 Fatty acids—physiological and technical aspects for their use in Food. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 103:45–55

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    FDA (2008a) U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Food Additives Safety: Agency Response Letter: GRAS Notice No. GRN 000226, January 3

  10. 10.

    FDA (2008b) U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Food Additives Safety: Agency Response Letter: GRAS Notice No. GRN 000242, October 14

  11. 11.

    FDA (2011) U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Office of Food Additives Safety: Agency Response Letter: GRAS Notice No. GRN 000371, July 22

  12. 12.

    Pietrowski BN, Tahergorabi R, Matak KE, Tou JC, Jaczynski J (2011) Chemical properties of surimi seafood nutrified with ω-3 rich oils. Food Chem 129:912–919

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Kassis NM, Gigliotti JC, Beamer SK, Tou JC, Jaczynski J (2011) Characterization of lipids and antioxidant capacity of novel nutraceutical egg products developed with omega-3-rich oils. J Sci Food Agric 92:66–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Sedoski HD, Beamer SK, Jaczynski J, Partington S, Matak KE (2012) Sensory evaluation and quality indicators of nutritionally enhanced egg products with ω-3 rich oils. LWT Food SciTechnol 47:459–464

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Nacka F, Cansell M, Gouygou JP, Gerbeaud C, Meleard P, Entressangles B (2001) Physical and chemical stability of marine lipid-based liposomes under acid conditions. Coll Surf B 20:257–266

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Nacka F, Cansell M, Entressangles B (2001) In vitro behavior of marine lipid-based liposomes, influence of pH, temperature, bile salts, and phospholipase A(2). Lipids 36:35–42

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Mozuraityte R, Rustad T, Storro I (2008) The role of iron in peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in liposomes. J Agric Food Chem 56:537–543

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Lu FSH, Nielsen NS, Baron CP, Jensen LHS, Jacobsen C (2012) Physico-chemical properties of marine phospholipid emulsions. J Am Oil Chem Soc 89:2011–2024

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Lu FSH, Nielsen NS, Baron CP, Jacobsen C (2012) Oxidative degradation and non-enzymatic browning between oxidized lipids and primary amine groups in different marine PL emulsions. Food Chem 135:2887–2896

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Lu FSH, Nielsen NS, Baron CP, Diehl BWK, Jacobsen C (2013) Impact of primary amine group from aminophospholipids and amino acids on marine phospholipid stability: non-enzymatic browning and lipid oxidation. Food Chem 141:879–888

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Let MB, Jacobsen C, Sorensen AD, Meyer AS (2007) Homogenisation condition affects the oxidative stability of fish oil enriched milk emulsions. J Agric Food Chem 51:1773–1780

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Iverson JS, lang LCS, Cooper MH (2001) Comparison of the Bligh and Dyer and Folch methods for total lipid determination in a broad range of marine tissue. Lipids 36:1283–1287

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    International IDF Standard 74 A (1991) Milk and milk products: determination of the iron content. Brussels: International Dairy Federation

  24. 24.

    Shantha NC, Decker EA (1994) Rapid, sensitive, iron-based spectrophotometric methods for determination of peroxide values of food lipids. J AOAC Int 77:421–424

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    AOCS (1998) Official method Ce 8-89: Determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in vegetable oils and fats by HPLC. AOCS, Champaign, IL

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Timm-Heinrich M, Xuebing X, Nielsen NS, Jacobsen C (2003) Oxidative stability of milk drinks containing structured lipids produced from sunflower oil and caprylic acid. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 105:459–470

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Spreekens Van (1974) The suitability of a modification of long and Hammer’s medium for the enumeration of more fastidious bacteria from fresh fishery products. Archiv fur Lebensmittelhygiene 25:213–219

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    ISO 8586-1 (1993) Sensory analysis—general guidance for selection, training and monitoring of assessors. Part 1: selected assessors. International organization for standardization

  29. 29.

    ISO 11035 (1994) Sensory analysis—identification and selection of description for establishing a sensory profile by a multidimensional approach. International standard

  30. 30.

    ISO standards 8589 (1988) Sensory analysis—general guidance for design of test rooms. International Organization for standardization

  31. 31.

    Saito H, Udagawa M (1992) Application of NMR to evaluate the oxidative deterioration of brown fish meal. J Sci Food Agric 58:135–137

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Mozafari MR, Khosravi-Darani K, Borazan GG, Cui J, Pardakhty A, Yurdugul S (2008) Encapsulation of food ingredients using nanoliposome technology. Int J Food Prop 11:833–844

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Miyashita K, Nara E, Ota T (1994) Comparative-study on the oxidative stability of phosphatidylcholines from salmon egg and soybean in an aqueous-solution. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58:1772–1775

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    McClements DJ, Decker EA (2000) Lipid oxidation in oil in water emulsions: impact of molecular environment on chemical reactions in heterogeneous food systems. J Food Sci 65:1270–1282

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Boyd LC, Nwosu VC, Young CL, MacMillian L (1998) Monitoring lipid oxidation and antioxidant effects of phospholipids by headspace gas chromatographic analyses of rancimat trapped volatiles. J Food Lipid 5:269–282

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Lu FSH, Nielsen NS, Baron CP, Diehl BWK, Jacobsen C (2012) Oxidative stability of emulsions prepared from purified marine phospholipid and the role of α-tocopherol. J Agric Food Chem 60:12388–12396

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Mei LY, Decker EA, McClements DJ (1998) Evidence of iron association with emulsion droplets and its impact on lipid oxidation. J Agric Food Chem 46:5072–5077

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Mei LY, McClement DJ, Wu J, Decker EA (1998) Iron-catalyzed lipid oxidation in emulsion as affected by surfactant, pH, NaCl. Food Chem 61:307–312

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Farvin KHS, Baron CP, Nielsen NS, Jacobsen C (2010) Antioxidant activity of fermented milk product peptides: part 1—in vitro assays and evaluation in omega-3 enriched milk. Food Chem 123:1081–1089

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Farvin KHS, Baron CP, Nielsen NS, Otte J, Jacobsen C (2010) Antioxidant activity of fermented milk product peptides: part 2—characterisation of peptide fractions. Food Chem 123:1090–1097

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Jacobsen C, Let MB, Andersen G, Meyer AS (2006) Oxidative stability of fish oil enriched fermented milk products. In: Seafood research from fish to dish: quality, safety and processing of wild and farmed fish. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, Netherlands, pp 71–86

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Triple Nine (Esbjerg, Denmark) for free PL samples, Maritex (subsidiary of TINE BA, Sortland, Norway) for fish oil sample. We would also like to thank Victoria Rothman for her help in analyzing PL emulsions, Rie Sørensen and Jeannette Unger Møller for their help with the sensory evaluation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. Jacobsen.

About this article

Cite this article

Lu, F.S.H., Thomsen, B.R., Hyldig, G. et al. Oxidative Stability and Sensory Attributes of Fermented Milk Product Fortified with Fish Oil and Marine Phospholipids. J Am Oil Chem Soc 90, 1673–1683 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-013-2310-4

Download citation

Keywords

  • Marine phospholipids
  • Fish oil
  • Oxidative stability
  • Emulsion
  • Fermented milk product
  • Sensory evaluation
  • Fishy
  • Rancid
  • Secondary volatiles