Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 90, Issue 7, pp 1089–1099 | Cite as

Development and Scale-up of Aqueous Surfactant-Assisted Extraction of Canola Oil for Use as Biodiesel Feedstock

  • Nattapong TuntiwiwattanapunEmail author
  • Chantra Tongcumpou
  • Darrin Haagenson
  • Dennis WiesenbornEmail author
Original Paper


Aqueous surfactant-assisted extraction (ASE) has been proposed as an alternative to n-hexane for extraction of vegetable oil; however, the use of inexpensive surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the effect of ASE on the quality of biodiesel from the oil are not well understood. Therefore, the effects on total oil extraction efficiency of surfactant concentration, extraction time, oilseed to liquid ratio and other parameters were evaluated using ASE with ground canola and SDS in aqueous solution. The highest total oil extraction efficiency was 80 %, and was achieved using 0.02 M SDS at 20 °C, solid–liquid ratio 1:10 (g:mL), 1,000 rpm stirring speed and 45 min contact time. Applying triple extraction with three stages reduced the amount of SDS solution needed by 50 %. The ASE method was scaled up to extract 300 g of ground canola using the best combination of extraction conditions as described above. The extracted oil from the scale-up of the ASE method passed the recommendation for biodiesel feedstock quality with respect to water content, acid value and phosphorous content. Water content, kinematic viscosity, acid value and oxidative stability index of ASE biodiesel were within the ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards.


Surfactant Canola Oil n-Hexane-free vegetable oil extraction Biodiesel feedstock ASTM D6751 



The authors are thankful for the research support from the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and the North Dakota Center of Excellence for Oilseed Development as well as the Higher Education Research Promotion and National Research University Project of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission, the Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste Management (Thailand). Dr. Mukhlesur Rahman, canola breeder in the Department of Plant Sciences at North Dakota State University, is also acknowledged for providing canola seeds. The gas chromatography analysis provided by Leonard Cook (USDA-ARS, Fargo, ND, USA) and inductively coupled plasma analysis for quantifying phosphorous content by Archer Daniels Midland (Enderlin, ND, USA) are gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© AOCS 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural and Biosystems EngineeringNorth Dakota State UniversityFargoUSA
  2. 2.Center of Excellence for Environmental and Hazardous Waste ManagementChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Environmental Research InstituteChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management, Graduate SchoolChulalongkorn UniversityBangkokThailand

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