Skip to main content

Tocopherol Content and Fatty Acid Distribution of Peas (Pisum sativum L.)

Abstract

The positional distribution of fatty acids (FA) of triacylglycerols (TAG) and major phospholipids (PL) prepared from four cultivars of peas (Pisum sativum L.) were investigated as well as their tocopherol contents. The lipids extracted from these peas were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) into seven fractions. The major lipid components were PL (52.2–61.3%) and TAG (31.2–40.3%), while the other components were also present in minor proportions (5.6–9.2%). γ-Tocopherol was present in the highest concentration, and α- and δ-tocopherols were very small amounts. The main PL components isolated from the four cultivars were phosphatidylcholine (42.3–49.2%), followed by phosphatidylinositol (23.3–25.2%) and then phosphatidylethanolamine (17.7–20.5%). Small but significant differences (P < 0.05) in FA distribution existed when different pea cultivars were determined. However, the principal characteristics of the FA distribution in the TAG and the three PL were evident among the four cultivars; unsaturated FA were predominantly located in the sn-2 position, and saturated FA primary occupied the sn-1 or sn-3 position in the oils of the peas. These results suggest that the regional distribution of tocopherols and fatty acids in peas is not dependent on the climatic conditions and the soil characteristics of the cultivation areas during the growing season.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Adsule RN, Kadam SS (1989) Proteins. In: Salunkhe DK, Kadam SS (eds) Handbook of world food legumes: nutritional chemistry, processing technology and utilization, vol II, edn. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 75–97

    Google Scholar 

  2. Hedley CL (2001) Carbohydrates in grain legume seeds. Improving nutritional quality and agronomic characteristics. CABI Publishing, Wallingford

    Google Scholar 

  3. Paul AA, Southgate DAT (1988) The composition of foods, 4th edn. In: McCanc RA, Widdwson EM (eds) Elsevier Applied Science, Amsterdam, pp 175–177

  4. Wang N, Daun JK (2004) Effect of variety and crude protein content on nutrients and certain antinutrients in field peas (Pisum sativum). J Sci Food Agric 84:1021–1029

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Vidal-Valverde C, Frias J, Hernandez A, Martin-Alvarez PJ. Sierra I, Rodriguez C, Blazquez I, Vicente G (2003) Assessment of nutritional compounds and antinutritional factors in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds. Ibid 83:298–306

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Wang XF, Warkentin TD, Briggs CJ, Oomah BD, Campbell CG, Woods S (1998) Trypsin inhibitor activity in field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and grass pea (Lathhyrus sativus L.). J Agric Food Chem 46:2620–2623

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Yoshida H, Alexander J (1983) Enzymatic hydrolysis in vitro of thermally oxidized sunflower oil. Lipids 18:611–616

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. AOAC (1984) Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington

  9. Folch J, Lee M, Sloane-Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226:497–509

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Yoshida H, Takagi S (1997) Effect of seed roasting temperature and time on the quality characteristics of sesame (Sesamum indicum) oil. J Sci Food Agric 75:19–26

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Yoshida H, Tomiyama Y, Mizushina Y (2005) Lipid classes, fatty acid composition and triacylglycerol molecular species of kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 107:307–315

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. AOCS (1992) Official methods Ce 1b-89. Fatty acid composition of GLC. Marine oils. AOCS, Champaign

  13. Yoshida H, Abe S, Hirakawa Y, Takagi S (2001) Roasting effects on fatty acid distributions of triacylglycerols and phospholipids in sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds. J Sci Food Agric 81:620–626

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Steel RCD, Torrie JH, Dickey DA (1997) Principles and procedures of statistics. 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York

    Google Scholar 

  15. Baker BJ (1980) Multiple comparison tests. Can J Plant Sci 60:325–327

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Savage GP (1988) The composition and nutritive value of lentils (Lens culinaris). Nutr Abst Rev A 59:66–88

    Google Scholar 

  17. Grela ER, Gunter KF (1995) Fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of some legume seeds. Anim Feed Sci Technol 52:325–331

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Tsuda T, Osawa T, Nakayama T, Kawakishi S, Ohshima K (1993) Antioxidant activity of pea bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) extract. J Am Oil Chem Soc 70:909–913

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Daveby YD, Abrahamsson M, Aman P (1993) Change in chemical composition during development of three different types of peas. J Sci Food Agric 63:21–28

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. Lee KG, Mitchell AE, Shibamoto T (2000) Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans. J Agric Food Chem 46:4817–4820

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Miyazawa T, Ito S, Fujino Y (1975) Fatty acid composition of glycerides and stereospecific analysis of triglyceride in pea seeds. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 21:137–142

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Arcos JA, Garcia HS, Hill CG Jr (2000) Regioselective analysis of the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols with conventional high-performance liquid chromatography. J Am Oil Chem Soc 77:507–512

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Slabas AR, Simon JW, Elborough KM (1995) Information needed to create new oil crops. Int News Fats Relat Mater 6:159–166

    Google Scholar 

  24. Alvarez-Ortega R, Cantisan S, Martinez-Force E, Garces R (1997) Characterization of polar and nonpolar seed lipid classes from highly saturated fatty acid sunflower mutants. Lipids 32:833–837

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Miyazawa T, Fujino Y (1976) Phospholipids in pea seed. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 50:169–174

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Vichi S, Pizzale L, Conte LS (2007) Stereospecific distribution of fatty acids in triacylglycerols of olive oils. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 109:72–78

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Prof. Bruce Holub of the Department of Human Health and Nutritional Science, University of Guelph, Canada, for reviewing and commenting on this manuscript. This work was financially supported in the part by a Grant-in-Aid for Kobe Gakuin University Joint Research (A), and also for Cooperative Research Center of Life Sciences of “Academic Frontier” Project for Private Universities, 2006–2010.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hiromi Yoshida.

About this article

Cite this article

Yoshida, H., Tomiyama, Y., Saiki, M. et al. Tocopherol Content and Fatty Acid Distribution of Peas (Pisum sativum L.). J Am Oil Chem Soc 84, 1031–1038 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1134-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-007-1134-5

Keywords

  • Cultivar
  • Fatty acid
  • Phosphatidylcholine
  • Phosphatidylethanolamine
  • Phosphatidylinositol
  • Positional distribution
  • Peas (Pisum sativum L.)
  • Tocopherol homologs
  • Triacylglycerols