Frying quality and oxidative stability of two unconventional oils

  • Abdalbasit MariodEmail author
  • Bertrand Matthäus
  • K. Eichner
  • Ismail H. Hussein


The behavior of crude Sclerocarya birrea kernel oil (SCO) and Sorghum bug (Agonoscelis pubescens) oil (SBO) during deep-frying of par-fried potatoes was studied with regard to chemical, physical, and sensory parameters, such as content of FFA, tocopherols, polar compounds, oligomer TG, volatile compounds, oxidative stability, and total oxidation (TOTOX) value. Palm olein was used for comparison. Whereas potatoes fried in SCO that had been used for 24 h of deep-frying at 175°C were still suitable for human consumption, potatoes prepared in SBO that had been used for 6 to 12 h were not, considering the sensory evaluation. In looking at the chemical and physical parameters, SBO exceeded the limits, after no later than 18 h of use, for the amount of polar compounds, oligomer TG, and FFA recommended by the German Society of Fat Sciences (DGF) as criteria for the rejection of used frying oils. In contrast to SBO, SCO oil did not exceed the limits for the content of polar compounds and oligomer TG during the frying experiment. Only the amount of FFA was exceeded; this was because the amount of FFA at the beginning of the experiment was higher than for refined oils. The results showed that both oils were suitable for deep-frying of potatoes, but remarkable differences in the time during which both oils produced palatable products were found.

Key Words

Agonoscelis pubescens deep-fat frying oxidative stability Sclerocarya birrea 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, Traditional Food Plants, Paper No. 42, FAO Food and Nutrition, U.N., Rome, 1988.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mizrahi, Y., and A. Nerd, New Crops as a Possible Solution for the Troubled Israeli Export Market, in Progress in New Crops, edited by J. Janick, ASHS Press, Alexandria, Virginia, 1996, pp. 37–45.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Salama, R.B., The Seed Oil of Sclerocarya birrea, Sudan J. Food Sci. Technol. 5:4–6 (1973).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ogbobe, O., Physico-Chemical Composition and Characterization of the Seed and Seed Oil of Sclerocarya birrea, Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 42:201–206 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mariod, A.A., A.O. Ali, S.A. Elhussein, and I.H. Hussien, A Reinvestigation of Physicochemical Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Sclerocarya birrea (homeid) Kernel Oil, Sudan J. Sci. Technol. 6:178–183 (2005).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mariod, A.A., B. Matthäus, and K. Eichner, Fatty Acid, Tocopherol and Sterol Composition as Well as Oxidative Stability of Three Unusual Sudanese Oils, J. Food Lipids 11:179–189 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lalas, S., and V. Dourtoglou, Use of Rosemary Extract in Preventing Oxidation During Deep-Fat Frying of Potato Chips, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80:579–583 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chang, S.S., R.J. Peterson, C. Ho, S.S. Chang, R.J. Peterson, and C. Ho, Chemical Reactions Involved in the Deep-Fat Frying of Foods, Ibid. 55:718–727 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xu, X.-Q., V.H. Tran, M. Palmer, K. White, and P. Salisbury, Chemical and Physical Analyses and Sensory Evaluation of Six Deep-Frying Oils, Ibid. 76:1091–1099 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Przybylski, R., and R.C. Zambiazi, Predicting Oxidative Stability of Vegetable Oils Using Neural Network System and Endogenous Oil Composition, Ibid. 77:925–930 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 4th edn., AOCS Press Champaign, Illinois, 1993.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Deutsche Gesellschalt für Fettewissenschaft (DGF), Deutsche Einheitsmethoden zur Untersuchung von Fetten, Fettprodukten, Tensiden und verwandten Stoffen, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart, Germany, 1998.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Balz, M., E. Schulte, and H.P. Their, Trennung von Tocopherol und Tocotrienolen durch HPLC, Fat Sci. Technol. 94:209–213 (1992).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Metrohm, Oxidationsstabilität von Ölen und Fetten—Rancimatmethode, Herisau, Switzerland, Application Bulletin Nr. 204/1 d (1994).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Statgraphics®, Statgraphics Statistical Graphics Systems, version 4.0. STSC Inc., Rockville, Maryland, 1985–1989.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Recommendations of the 3rd International Symposium on Deep Fat Frying—Optimal Operation, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 102:594 (2000).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kiritsakis, A.K., Flavor Components of Olive Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75:673–681 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kao, J., E.G. Hammond, and P.J. White, Volatile Compounds Produced During Deodorization of Soybean Oil and Their Flavor Significance, Ibid. 75:1103–1107 (1998).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Warner, K., P. Orr, and M. Glynn, Effect of Fatty Acid Composition of Oils on Flavor and Stability of Fried Foods, Ibid. 74:347–356 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stevenson, S.G., M. Vaisey-Genser, and N.A.M. Eskin, Quality Control in the Use of Deep Frying Oils, Ibid. 61:1102–1108 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gasparoli, A., The Formation of New Compounds, Grasas Aceites 49:303–309 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kiatsrichart, S., M.S. Brewer, K.R. Cadwallader, and W.E. Artz, Pan-Frying Stability of NuSun Oil, a Mid-oleic Sunflower Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80:479–483 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Che Man, Y.B., and W.R. Hussin, Comparison of the Frying Performance of Refined, Bleached and Deodorized Palm Olein and Coconut Oil, J. Food Lipids 5:197–210 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gertz, C., Chemical and Physical Parameters as Quality Indicators of Used Frying Fat, Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 102:566–572 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Augustin, M.A., and S.K. Berry, Efficacy of the Antioxidants BHA and BHT in Palm Olein During Heating and Frying, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60:1520–1522 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fritsch, C.W., Measurements of Frying Fat Deterioration, Ibid. 55:718–727 (1981).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Boskou, D., Frying Temperatures and Minor Constituents of Oils and Fats, Grasas Aceites 49:326–330 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wagner, K., and I. Elmadfa (1999) Nutrient Antioxidants and Stability of Frying Oils: Tocochromanols, β-Carotene, Phylloquinone, Ubiquinone, in Frying of Food: Oxidation, Nutrient and Nonnutrient Antioxidants, Biologically Active Compounds and High Temperatures, edited by D. Boskou and I. Elmadfa, Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, Basel, 1999, pp. 165–167.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tsaknis, J., V. Spiliotis, S. Lalas, V. Gergis, and V. Dourtoglou, Quality Changes of Moringa oleifera, Variety Mbololo of Kenya, Seed Oil During Frying, Grasas Aceites 50:37–48 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdalbasit Mariod
    • 1
    Email author
  • Bertrand Matthäus
    • 2
  • K. Eichner
    • 3
  • Ismail H. Hussein
    • 4
  1. 1.Food Science & Technology Department, College of Agricultural StudiesSudan University of Science & TechnologyKhartoum NorthSudan
  2. 2.Federal Research Centre for Nutrition and FoodInstitute for Lipid ResearchMünsterGermany
  3. 3.Institute for Food Chemistry of the Westfälische-Wilhelms-UniversitätMünsterGermany
  4. 4.National Oilseed Processing Research InstituteUniversity of GeziraWad MadaniSudan

Personalised recommendations