New technologies to determine solid fat content on-line

  • Silvana Martini
  • Maria Lidia Herrera
  • Alejandro Marangoni


The determination of solid fat content (SFC) is an important analytical procedure in the food industry. The most common way to determine SFC is by low-resolution pulsed NMR (p-NMR). Although this technique is very sensitive and easy to use, it has the disadvantage that it cannot be used for on-line measurements. The present work compares new technologies to determine SFC on-line. On-line ultrasonic spectroscopy and NMR-MOUSE (NMR mobile universal surface explorer) techniques were compared with off-line p-NMR measurements and there was a good correlation between the values obtained. Ultrasonic measurements accurately described the SFC variation, whereas NMR-MOUSE determinations need to be improved to some extent owing to a strong temperature and motion dependence. These two techniques can be used as on-line methodologies to determine SFC during the crystallization of fats.

Key Words

Fat crystallization NMR-MOUSE on-line measurements p-NMR solid fat content ultrasonics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Martini, S., C. Bertoli, M.L. Herrera, I. Neeson, and A.G. Marangoni, In situ Monitoring of Solid Fat Content by Means of Pulsed Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Ultrasonics, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 82, 305–312 (2005).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Martini, S., C. Bertoli, M.L. Herrera, I. Neeson, and A.G. Marangoni, Attenuation of Ultrasonic Waves: Influence of Microstructure and Solid Fat Content, 82, 319–328 (2005).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miles, C.A., G.A.J. Fursey, and R.C.D. Jones, Ultrasonic Estimation of Solid/Liquid Ratios in Fats, Oils and Adipose Tissue, J. Sci. Food Agric. 36:215–228 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    McClements, D.J., and M.J.W. Povey, Comparison of Pulsed NMR and Ultrasonic Velocity Techniques for Determining Solid Fat Contents, Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 23:159–170 (1988).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    McClements, D.J., and M.J.W. Povey, Investigation of Phase Transitions in Glyceride/Paraffin Oil Mixtures Using Ultrasonics Velocity Measurement, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 65:1791–1795 (1988).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    McClements, D.J., and M.J.W. Povey, Ultrasonic Analysis of Edible Fats and Oils, Ultrasonics 30:383–388 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    McClements, D.J., M.J.W. Povey, and E. Dickinson, Absorption and Velocity Dispersion Due to Crystallization and Melting of Emulsion Droplets, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 31:433–437 (1993).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singh, A.P., D.J. McClements, and A.G. Marangoni, Comparison of Ultrasonic and Pulsed NMR Techniques for Determination of Solid Fat Content, 79:431–437 (2002).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saggin, R., and J.N. Coupland, Measurement of Solid Fat Content by Ultrasonic Reflectance in Model Systems and Chocolate, Food Res. Intl. 35:999–1005 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Blümich, B., A. Anferova, K. Kremer, S. Sharma, V. Herrmann, and A. Segre, Unilateral Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for Quality Control, Spectroscopy 18(2):18–73 (2003).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Guthausen, G., A. Guthausen, F. Balibanu, R. Eymael, K. Hailu, U. Schmitz, and B. Blümich, Soft Matter Analysis by the NMR-MOUSE, Macromol. Mater. Eng. 267/277:25–37 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guthausen, A., G. Guthausen, A. Kamlowski, H. Todt, W. Burk, and D. Schmalbein, Measurement of Fat Content of Food with Single-Sided NMR, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 81:727–731 (2004).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pedersen, H.T., Application of the NMR-MOUSE to Food Emulsions, Ph.D. Dissertation, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg, Denmark, 2001.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eidmann, G., R. Savelsberg, P. Blümler, and B. Blümich, The NMR-MOUSE, a Mobile Universal Surface Explorer, J. Magnet. Reson. A 122:104–109 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guthausen, A., G. Zimmer, P. Blümler, and B. Blümich, Analysis of Polymer Materials by Surface NMR via the MOUSE, J. Magnet. Reson. 130:1–7 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvana Martini
    • 2
  • Maria Lidia Herrera
    • 1
  • Alejandro Marangoni
    • 2
  1. 1.Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y NaturalesUniversity of Buenes AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Department of Food ScienceUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada

Personalised recommendations