Three oil samples obtained from sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seeds were studied by means of FTIR and 1H NMR. Frequency data of the most significant bands of the IR spectrum of this oil are given. These data show that sacha inchi oil has a high degree of unsaturation. The same fact is deduced from the ratio between the absorbance of the bands due to the stretching vibrations of the cis olefinic CH double bonds at 3010.5 cm−1 and to the methylene symmetrical stretching vibrations at 2855.1 cm−1. The proportions of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and saturated acyl groups were predicted from the frequency of some IR bands, and these were in satisfactory agreement with the values obtained through FAME generation and their quantification by GC. Likewise, simple observation of the 1H NMR spectra provided a great deal of information about sacha inchi oil, with regard not only to the relative proportions of the different acyl groups but also to their nature. Thus, the presence of γ-linolenic acyl groups was discounted. Furthermore, the area of some 1H NMR signals was used to determine the proportion of saturated and mono-, di-, and triunsaturated acyl groups, which also were in satisfactory agreement with the values obtained by classical methods. IR and 1H NMR determinations take very little time in comparison with classical methods and do not require chemical manipulation or transformation of the sample. A comparison was also made between the compositions of sacha inchi and linseed oil. Both oils are important sources of the healthful n−3 linolenic acyl groups, and sacha inchi also contains high proportions of the n−6 linoleic acyl groups.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Hamaker, B.R., C. Valles, R. Gilman, R.M. Hardmeier, D. Clark, H.H. García, A.E. Gonzales, I. Kohlstad, and M. Castro, Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Profiles of the Inca Peanut (Plukenetia volubilis L.), Cereal Chem. 69:461–463 (1992).
Simopoulos, A.P., Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease and in Growth and Development, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 34:411–414 (1991).
Fernandes, G., and J.T. Venkatraman, Role of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease, Nutr. Res. 13 (Suppl. 1):S19-S45 (1993).
Guillén, M.D., and N. Cabo, Infrared Spectroscopy in the Study of Edible Oils and Fats, J. Sci. Food Agric. 75:1–11 (1997).
Guillén, M.D., and A. Ruiz, High Resolution 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in the Study of Edible Oils and Fats, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 12:328–338 (2001).
Van de Voort, F.R., A.A. Ismail, J. Sedman, G. Emo, and A.A. Ismail, A Rapid FTIR Quality Control Method for Fat and Moisture Determination in Butter, Food Res. Int. 25:193–198 (1992).
Van de Voort, F.R., J. Sedman, G. Emo, and A.A. Ismail, Rapid and Direct Iodine Value and Saponification Number Determination of Fats and Oils by Attenuated Total Reflectance/Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 69: 1118–1123 (1992).
Van de Voort, F.R., A.A. Ismail, J. Sedman, J. Dubois, and T. Nicodemo, The Determination of Peroxide Value by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ibid. 71:921–926 (1994).
Van de Voort, F.R., A.A. Ismail, and J. Sedman, A Rapid, Automated Method for the Determination of cis and trans Content of Fats and Oils by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Ibid. 72:873–880 (1995).
Safar, M., D. Bertrand, P. Robert, M.F. Devaux, and C. Genot, Characterization of Edible Oils, Butters, and Margarines by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuated Total Reflectance, Ibid. 71:371–377 (1994).
Guillén, M.D., and N. Cabo, Characterization of Edible Oils and Lard by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Relationships Between Composition and Frequency of Concrete Bands of the Fingerprint Region, Ibid. 74:1281–1286 (1997).
Guillén, M.D., and N. Cabo, Relationships Between the Composition of Edible Oils and Lard and the Ratio of the Absorbance of Specific Bands of Their Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra. Role of Some Bands of the Fingerprint Region, J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:1788–1793 (1998).
Guillén, M.D., and N. Cabo, Usefulness of the Frequencies of Some Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Bands for Evaluating the Composition of Edible Oil Mixtures, Fett/Lipid 101:71–76 (1999).
Guillén, M.D., and N. Cabo, Characterization of Edible Oils and Fats and Determination of Their Oxidative Stability by Means of the Frequency Value of Specific Bands of Their Infrared Spectrum, Alimentaria 7–8:51–58 (2000).
Sacchi, R., M. Patumi, G. Fontanazza, P. Barone, P. Fiodiponti, L. Mannina, E. Rossi, and A.L. Segre, A High-Field 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of the Minor Components in Virgin Olive Oils, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73:747–758 (1996).
Segre, A.L., and L. Mannina, 1H NMR Study of Edible Oils, Rec. Res. Devel. Oil Chem. 1:297–308 (1997).
Sacchi, R., L. Mannina, P. Fiordiponti, P. Barone, L. Paolillo, M. Patumi, and A.L. Segre, Characterization of Italian Extra Virgin Olive Oils Using 1H NMR Spectroscopy, J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:3947–3951 (1998).
Mannina, L., M. Patumi, P. Fiordiponti, M.C. Emanuele, and A.L. Segre, Olive and Hazelnut Oils: A Study by High-Field 1H NMR and Gas Chromatography, Ital. J. Food Sci. 2:139–149 (1999).
Sacco, A., M.A. Brescia, V. Liuzzi, F. Reniero, C. Guillou, S. Ghelli, and P. Van der Meer, Characterization of Italian Olive Oils Based on Analytical and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Determinations, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 77:619–625 (2000).
Johnson, L.F., and J.N. Schoolery, Determination of Unsaturation and Average Molecular Weight of Natural Fats by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Anal. Chem. 34:1136–1139 (1962).
Guillén, M.D., M.L. Ibargoitia, N. Cabo, and A. Ruiz, 1H NMR Monitoring of Safflower Oil Degradation Under Several Oxidation Conditions, in 5th ICAMRFS—The 5th International Conference Oil Application of Magnetic Resonance, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal, 2000.
Guillén, M.D., and A. Ruiz, Edible Oils: Discrimination by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, J. Sci. Food Agric. 83:338–346 (2003).
European Economic Community, Regulation EEC/2568/91 on the Characteristics of Olive and Olive Pomace Oils and on Their Analytical Methods. Annexe XB Preparation of the Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids, Off. J. Eur. Commun. L 248:111–114 (1991).
Afran, A., and E.J. Newbery, Analysis of the Degree of Unsaturation in Edible Oils by Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy, Spectroscopy 6:31–34 (1991).
Arnold, R.G., and T.E. Hartung, Infrared Spectroscopy Determination of Degree of Unsaturation of Fats and Oils, J. Food Sci. 36:166–168 (1971).
Mikusch, J.D., The Specifications for Linseed Oils, Farbe + Lack 57:91–94 (1951).
Aursand, M., J.R. Rainuzzo, and H. Grasladen, Quantitative High-Resolution 13C and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of ω-3 Fatty Acids from White Muscle of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar), J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 70:971–981 (1993).
Sacchi, R., I. Medina, S.P. Aubourg, F. Addeo, and L. Paolillo, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Rapid and Structure-Specific Determination of ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Fish Lipids, Ibid. 70:225–228 (1993).
Igarashi, T., M. Aursand, Y. Hirata, I.S. Gribbestad, S. Wada, and M. Nonaka, Nondestructive Quantitative Determination of Docosahexaenoic Acid and n−3 Fatty Acids in Fish Oils by High-Resolution 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Ibid. 77:737–748 (2000).
Pouchert, C.J., and J. Behnke, The Aldrich Library of 13 C and 1 H FT-NMR Spectra, 1st edn., Aldrich Chemical Company, Milwaukee, 1993, Vol. 1.
Ketshajwang, K.K., J. Holmback, and S.O. Yeboah, Quality and Compositional Studies of Some Edible Leguminosae Seed Oils in Botswana, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75:741–743 (1998).
Miyake, Y., K. Yokomizo, and N. Matsuzaki, Determination of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Composition by High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Ibid. 75:1091–1094 (1998).
About this article
Cite this article
Guillén, M.D., Ruiz, A., Cabo, N. et al. Characterization of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) oil by FTIR spectroscopy and 1H NMR. Comparison with linseed oil. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 80, 755–762 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-003-0768-z
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
- 1H nuclear magnetic resonance
- sacha inchi oil