Formation of 4-hydroxynonenal, a toxic aldehyde, in soybean oil at frying temperature
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- Seppanen, C.M. & Saari Csallany, A. J Amer Oil Chem Soc (2002) 79: 1033. doi:10.1007/s11746-002-0598-z
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The formation of 4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE), a mutagenic and cytotoxic product of the peroxidation of linoleic acid, was monitored in soybean oil that was heated at 185°C for 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h. Unheated soybean oil contained no HNE and a relatively low concentration of polar lipophilic secondary oxidation products (aldehydes and related carbonyl compounds), measured as 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives by HPLC. An increase in the concentration of both HNE and total lipophilic polar oxidation products was observed with increased exposure to frying temperature. A considerable concentration of HNE had already formed at 2 h and the concentration continued to increase at 4 and 6 h of heating. After 6 h the concentration of HNE decreased, possibly due to degradation of the aldehyde with further exposure to high temperature. The loss of endogenous tocopherols was also monitored in the heated oil, and the tocopherol concentration decreased as the secondary lipid oxidation products increased.