Advertisement

Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 78, Issue 3, pp 249–255 | Cite as

Free radical scavenging capacity as related to antioxidant activity and ginsenoside composition of Asian and North American ginseng extracts

  • Chun Hu
  • David D. KittsEmail author
Article

Abstract

Different Panax species derived from Asia (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) and North America (Panax quinquefolium L.) were extracted by methanol and evaluated for relative ginsenoside composition and antioxidant activities. Ginseng root contained a greater proportion of total ginsenoside compared to ginseng hair analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. North American ginseng root was characterized with undetectable ginsenoside Rf and greater Rb1/Rb2 than Asian ginseng root. Panax quinquefolium exhibited a relatively higher (P<0.05) affinity to scavenge free radical than panax ginseng using the 2,2-azobis (3-ethylbenzothine-6-thine-6-surfonic acid) radical model. In a bilayer lamella suspension oxidation model induced by peroxyl radicals, ginseng samples exhibited notable antioxidant activity. Specifically, however, the P. quinquefolium extracts delayed lipid peroxidation longer (P<0.05) than the P. ginseng extracts. Ginseng extracts from both Panax species protected human low-density lipoprotein against cupric ion-mediated oxidation. Similar protection was observed against peroxyl radical-induced supercoiled DNA breakage. A pure ginsenoside standard (e.g., Rb1) produced similar results. The antioxidant activities of different ginseng species and specific plant parts include free radical scavenging and may be related to ginsenoside Rb1/Rb2 content.

Key Words

Antioxidant DNA ginseng Panax ginseng Panax quinquefolium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Shibata, S., O. Tanaka, J. Shoji, and H. Saito, Chemistry and Pharmacology of Panax, in Economic and Medicinal Plant Research, edited by H. Wagner, H. Hikino, and N.R. Farnsworth, Academic Press, Orlando, 1985, pp. 218–245.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gills, C.N., Panax Ginseng Pharmacology: a Nitric Oxide Link? Biochem. Pharmacol. 54:1–8 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zhang, D., T. Yasuda, Y. Yu, P. Sheng, T. Kawabata, Y. Ma, and S. Okada, Ginseng Extract Scavenges Hydroxyl Radicals and Protects Unsaturated Fatty Acid from Decomposition Caused by Iron-Mediated Lipid Peroxidation, Free Radicals Biol. Med. 20:145–150 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kitts, D.D., A.N. Wijewickreme, and C. Hu, Antioxidant Properties of North American Ginseng Extract, Mol. and Cell. Biochem. 203:1–10 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Deng, H.L., and J.T. Zhang, Anti-Lipid Peroxidative Effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1, Chinese Med. J. 104:395–398 (1991).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhong, G.G., H. Qi, C.Y. Zhao, and Y. Jiang, Comparative Observation on the Influence of 11 Ginsenoside Monomers on the Free Radical Contents on Myocardiocytes with the Electron Spin Resonance Method, Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. 25:667–671 (1993).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ma, Y.C., J. Zhu, L. Benkrima, M. Luo, L. Sun, S. Sain, K. Kont and Y.Y. Plaut-Carcasson, A Comparison Evaluation of Ginsenosides in Commercial Ginseng Products and Tissue Cultured Samples Using HPLC, J. Herbs, Spices, Med. Plants 3:41–50 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smith, R.G., D. Caswell, A. Carriere, and B. Zielke, Variation in the Ginsenoside Content of American Ginseng, Panax quinquefolium L. Roots, Can. J. Bot. 74:1616–1620 (1996).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li, J.P., M. Huang, H. Teoh, and R.Y.K. Man, Panax quinquefolium Saponins Protect Low-Density Lipoproteins from Oxidation, Life Sci. 64:53–62 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hu, C., and D.D. Kitts, Studies on the Antioxidant Activity of Echinacea Root Extract, J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:1466–1472 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hu, C., Y. Zhang, and D.D. Kitts, Evaluation of Antioxidant and Prooxidant Activity of Bamboo Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis Leaf Extract in vitro, Ibid. 48:3170–3176 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pellegrini, N., M. Ying, and C. Rice-Evans, Screening of Dietary Carotenoids and Carotenoid-Rich Fruits Extract for Antioxidant Activities Applying 2,2′-Azobis(3-ethylbenzothine-6-sulfonic acid) Radical Cation Decolorization Assay, Methods Enzymol. 299:384–388 (1999).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aruoma, O.I., Assessment of Potential Prooxidant and Antioxidant Actions, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 73:1617–1625 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Puhl, H., G. Waeg, and H. Esterbauer, Methods to Determine Oxidation of Low-Density Lipoprotein, Methods Enzymol. 233: 425–447 (1994).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yen, G.C., H.Y. Chen, and H.H. Peng, Antioxidant and Prooxidant Effects of Various Tea Extracts, J. Agric. Food Chem. 45: 30–34 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shahidi, F., and M. Nazck, Food Phenolics: Sources, Chemistry, Effects, Applications, Technomic Publishing Co. Inc., Lancaster, 1995, pp. 292–293.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arora, A., M.G. Nair, and G.M. Strasburg, Structure-Activity Relationship for Antioxidant Activities of a Series of Flavonoids in a Liposomal System, Free Radicals Med. Biol. 24:1355–1365 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Terao, J., M. Piskula, and Q. Yao, Protective Effect of Epicatechin, Epicatechin Gallate, and Quercetin on Lipid Peroxidation in Phospholipid Bilayers, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 308:278–284 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ishikawa, T., M. Suzukawa, T. Ito, and H. Nakamura, Effect of Tea Flavonoid Supplementation on the Susceptibility of Low-Density Lipoprotein to Oxidation Modification, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66:261–266 (1997).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Niki, E., Free Radical Initiators as Sources of Water or Lipid-Soluble Peroxyl Radicals, Methods Enzymol. 186:100–108 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jia, Z.S., B. Zhou, L. Yang, L.M. Wu, and Z.L. Liu, Antioxidant Synergism of Tea Polyphenols and α-Tocopherol Against Free Radical Induced Peroxidation of Linoleic Acid in Solution, J. Chem. Soc. Perkin-Trans. II 4:911–915 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salah, N., N.J. Miller, G. Paganga, L. Tijburg, G.P. Bolwell, and C. Rice-Evans, Polyphenolic Flavonols as Scavengers of Aqueous Phase Radicals and as Chain-Breaking Antioxidants, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 322:339–346 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mei, B., Y.F. Wang, J.X. Wu, and W.Z. Chen, Protective Effects of Ginsenosides on Oxygen Free Radical-Induced Damages of Cultured Vascular Endothelial Cells in vitro, Acta Pharm. Sin. 29:801–807 (1994).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhong, G.G., C.W. Sun, and Y.Y. Li, Calcium Channel Blocked and Anti-Free-Radical Actions of Panaxadiol Saponins Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, Rc, and Rd, Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 16:255–258 (1995).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Suh, D.Y., Y.N. Han and B.H. Han, Maltol an Antioxidant Component of Korean Red Ginseng Shows Little Prooxidant Activity, Arch. Pharmacal Res. 19:112–115 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Huong, N.T.T., K. Matsumoto, R. Kasai, K. Yamosaka, and H. Watanabe, In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Vietnamese Ginseng Saponin and Its Components, Biol. Pharm. Bull. 21:978–981 (1998).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li, T.S.C., G. Mazza, A.C. Cottrell, and L. Gao, Ginsenosides in Roots and Leaves of American Ginseng, J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:717–720 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Food, Nutrition and Health, Faculty of Agricultural ScienceUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations