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Effect of refining of crude rice bran oil on the retention of oryzanol in the refined oil

Abstract

The effect of different processing steps of refining on retention or the availability of oryzanol in refined oil and the oryzanol composition of Indian paddy cultivars and commercial products of the rice bran oil (RBO) industry were investigated. Degumming and dewaxing of crude RBO removed only 1.1 and 5.9% of oryzanol while the alkali treatment removed 93.0 to 94.6% of oryzanol from the original crude oil. Irrespective of the strength of alkali (12 to 20° Be studied), retention of oryzanol in the refined RBO was only 5.4–17.2% for crude oil, 5.9–15.0% for degummed oil, and 7.0 to 9.7% for degummed and dewaxed oil. The oryzanol content of oil extracted from the bran of 18 Indian paddy cultivars ranged from 1.63 to 2.72%, which is the first report of its kind in the literature on oryzanol content. The oryzanol content ranged from 1.1 to 1.74% for physically refined RBO while for alkali-refined oil it was 0.19–0.20%. The oil subjected to physical refining (commercial sample) retained the original amount of oryzanol after refining (1.60 and 1.74%), whereas the chemically refined oil showed a considerably lower amount (0.19%). Thus, the oryzanol, which is lost during the chemical refining process, has been carried into the soapstock. The content of oryzanol of the commercial RBO, soapstock, acid oil, and deodorizer distillate were in the range: 1.7–2.1, 6.3–6.9, 3.3–7.4, and 0.79%, respectively. These results showed that the processing steps—viz., degumming (1.1%), dewaxing (5.9%), physical refining (0%), bleaching and deodorization of the oil—did not affect the content of oryzanol appreciably, while 83–95% of it was lost during alkali refining. The oryzanol composition of crude oil and soapstock as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography indicated 24-methylene cycloartanyl ferulate (30–38%) and campesteryl ferulate (24.4–26.9%) as the major ferulates. The results presented here are probably the first systematic report on oryzanol availability in differently processed RBO, soapstocks, acid oils, and for oils of Indian paddy cultivars.

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Correspondence to A. G. Gopala Krishna.

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Krishna, A.G.G., Khatoon, S., Shiela, P.M. et al. Effect of refining of crude rice bran oil on the retention of oryzanol in the refined oil. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 78, 127–131 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-001-0232-0

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-001-0232-0

Key Words

  • Indian paddy cultivars
  • oryzanol
  • processing of RBO
  • rice bran oil