Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

, Volume 77, Issue 3, pp 297–310 | Cite as

Crystallization kinetics of palm stearin in blends with sesame seed oil

  • J. F. Toro-VazquezEmail author
  • M. Briceño-Montelongo
  • E. Dibildox-Alvarado
  • M. Charó-Alonso
  • J. Reyes-Hernández


This study investigates the crystallization kinetics of palm stearin (PS), a palm oil fraction, in blends with sesame seed oil. The results indicate that the crystallization behavior of PS in sesame oil is mainly associated with the crystallization of tripalmitin. Therefore, crystallization of blends of 26, 42, 60, and 80% (wt/vol) PS in sesame oil was described by equations developed for simpler systems (e.g., Fisher and Turnbull equation). The isothermal crystallization, melting profile, and fitting of the kinetics of nucleation to the Fisher and Turnbull equation showed that the 26, 42, and 60% PS/sesame oil blends crystallized mainly in the β1′ polymorph state. In contrast, the 80% blend crystallized in two different polymorph states (i.e., β1′ at T⪯307.6 K and β1 at T≽308.2 K). The data indicated that, in spite of the higher concentration of PS in the 80% PS/sesame oil system, crystallization in the β1 state required more free energy for nucleation (δG c ) than β1′ crystallization in the 26, 42, and 60% PS/sesame oil. At the low cooling rate used (1 K/min) it was observed that, for a particular PS blend, the higher the effective supercooling the higher the viscosity of the oil phase and the smaller the induction time of crystallization (Ti). Additionally, the β1′ crystals from PS, developed at the highest effective supercooling investigated, were smaller than the β1 crystals obtained at lower effective supercooling.

Key Words

Avrami crystallization Fisher-Turnball oil viscosity palm oil palm stearin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Kamal-Eldin, A., and L.A. Appelqvist, Variation in Fatty Acid Composition of the Different Acyl Lipids in Seed Oils from Four Sesamum Species, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71:135–139 (1994).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Salunkhe, D.K., J.K. Chavan, R.N. Adsule, and S.S. Kadam, Sesame, in World Oilseeds: Chemistry, Technology and Utilization, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991, pp. 371–402.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kamal-Eldin, A., and L.Å. Appelqvist, Variation in Composition of Sterols, Tocopherols and Lignans in Seed Oils from Four Sesamum Species, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 71:149–156 (1994).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kamal-Eldin, A., L.Å. Appelqvist, and G. Yousil, Lignan Analysis in Seed Oils from Four Sesamum Species: Comparison of Different Chromatographic Methods, ——Ibid. 71:141–147 (1994).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    About-Gharbia, H.A., F. Shahidi, A.A.Y. Shehata, and M.M. Youssef, Oxidative Stability of Extracted Sesame Oil from Raw and Processed Seeds, J. Food Lipids 3:59–72 (1996).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yoshida, H., and G. Kajimoto, Microwave Heating Affects Composition and Oxidative Stability of Sesame (Sesamum indicum) Oil, J. Food Sci. 59:613–616 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shahidi, F., R. Amarowicz, H.A. Abou-Gharbia, and A.Y. Shehata, Endogenous Antioxidants and Stability of Sesame Oil as Affected by Processing and Storage, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 74:143–148 (1997).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dibildox-Alvarado E., and J. Toro-Vazquez, Isothermal Crystallization of Tripalmitin in Sesame Oil, ——Ibid. 74:69–76 (1997).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Toro-Vazquez, J.F., and M. Charó-Alonso, Physicochemical Aspects of Triacylglycerides and Their Association to Functional Properties of Vegetable Oils, in Functional Properties of Proteins and Lipids, ACS Symposium Series 70, edited by J.R. Whitaker, F. Shahidi, A. López Munguía, R.Y. Yada, and G. Fuller, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 1998, pp. 230–253.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haumann, B.F., Widening Array of Spreads Awaits Shoppers, INFORM 9:6–13 (1998).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haumann, B.F., Tools: Hydrogenation, Interesterification, ——Ibid. 5:668–678 (1994).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hamm, W., Trends in Edible Oil Fractionation, Trends Food Sci. Technol. 6:121–126 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yusoff, M.S.A., H. Kifli, H.D.M. Noor Lida, and M.P. Rozie, (1998) The Formulation of Trans Fatty Acid-Free Margarines, in Emerging Technologies, Current Practices, Quality Control, Technology Transfer, and Environmental Issues, Vol. 1, edited by S.S. Koseoglu, K.C. Rhee, and R.F. Wilson, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1998, pp. 156–158.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Che Man, Y.B., T. Haryati, H.M. Ghazali, and B.A. Asbi, Composition and Thermal Profile of Crude Palm Oil and Its Products, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76:237–242 (1999).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Toro-Vazquez, J.F., and A. Gallegos-Infante, Viscosity and Its Relationship to Crystallization in a Binary System of Saturated Triacylglycerides and Sesame Seed Oil, ——Ibid. 73:1237–1246 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nikolova-Damyanova, N., Silver Ion Chromatography and Lipids, in Advances in Lipid Methodology—One, edited by W.W. Christie, The Oily Press, Glasgow, 1992, pp. 181–237.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hildebrand, J.H., and S.R. Scott, Solubility of Nonelectrolytes, 3rd edn., Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York, 1950.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Avrami, M., Kinetics of Phase Change. II. Transformation-Time Relations for Random Distribution of Nuclei, J. Chem. Phys. 8:212–224 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kawamura, K., The DSC Thermal Analysis of Crystallization Behavior in Palm Oil, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 56:753–758 (1979).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Henderson, D.W., Thermal Analysis of Non-Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics in Glass Forming Liquids, J. Non-Crystalline Solids 30:301–305 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ng, W.L., A Study of the Kinetics of Nucleation in a Palm Oil Melt, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 67:879–882 (1990).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Herrera, M.L., C. Falabella, M. Melgarejo, and M.C. Añon, Isothermal Crystallization of Hydrogenated Sunflower Oil: I—Nucleation, ——Ibid. 75:1273–1280 (1998).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hoffman, J.D., and J.J. Weeks, Melting Process and the Equilibrium Melting Temperature of Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, J. Res. Nat. Bur. Std. 66:13–28 (1962).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hoffman, J.D., and J.J. Weeks, Rate of Spherulitic crystallization with Chain Folds in Polychlorotrifluoroethylene, Chem. Phys. 37:1723–1733 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gibon, V., F. Durant, and Cl. Deroanne, Polymorphism and Intersolubility of Some Palmitic, Stearic and Oleic Triglycerides: PPP, PSP, POP, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 63:1047–1055 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Busfield, W.K., and P.N. Proschogo, Thermal Analysis of Palm Stearin by DSC, ——Ibid. 67:171–175 (1990).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Swe, P.Z., Y.B. Che Man, and H.M. Ghazali, Polymorphic Study of High Melting Glycerides of Palm Olein Crystals, Mal. Oil Sci. Tech. 4:205–208 (1995).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    deMan, J.M., Functionality of Palm Oil in Foods, J. Food Lipids 5:159–170 (1998).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    deMan, J.M., and L. deman, Palm Oil as a Component for High Quality Margarine and Shortening Formulations, Mal. Oil Sci. Tech. 4:56–60 (1995).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Norton, I.T., C.D. Lee-Tuffnell, S. Ablett, and S.M. Bociek, Calorimetric, NMR and X-ray Diffraction Study of the Melting Behavior of Tripalmitin and Tristearin and Their Mixing Behavior with Triolein, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 62:1237–1244 (1985).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Metin, S., and R.W. Hartel, Thermal Analysis of Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics in Blends of Cocoa Butter with Milk Fat or Milk Fat Fractions, ——Ibid. 75:1617–1624 (1990).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Medellín-Rodríguez, F.J., and P.J. Phillips, Poly(aryl ether ketone) (PEEK) (Bulk Crystallization), Polym. Materials Enc. 75:5513–5518 (1996).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kawamura, K., The DSC Thermal Analysis of crystallization Behavior in Palm Oil. II, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 57:48–52 (1980).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Colomer Vilanova, P., S. Monsellat Ribas, and G. Martín Guzmán, Isothermal Crystallization of Poly(ethylene-terephthalate) of Low Molecular Weight by Differential Scanning Calorimetry: 1. Crystallization Kinetics, Polymer 26:423–428.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dibildox-Alvarado, E., and J.F. Toro-Vazquez, Evaluation of Crystallization in Sesame Oil Through a Modified Avrami Equation, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 75:73–76 (1998).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Renaud, S.C., J.C. Ruf, and D. Petithory, The Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Palm Oil and Lard Influences Their Biological Effects in Rats, J. Nutr. 125:229–237 (1995).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zock, P.L., J.H.M. Vries, N.J. Foum, and M.B. Katan, Positional Distribution of Fatty Acids in Dietary Triglycerides: Effects on Fasting Blood Lipoprotein Concentrations in Humans, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 61:48–55 (1995).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. F. Toro-Vazquez
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. Briceño-Montelongo
    • 1
  • E. Dibildox-Alvarado
    • 1
  • M. Charó-Alonso
    • 1
  • J. Reyes-Hernández
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro de Investigación y Estudios de Posgrado de la Facultad de Ciencias QuímicasUniversidad Autonoma de San Luis PotosíSan Luis PotosiMexico

Personalised recommendations