Skip to main content

Characterization of semisolid fats and edible oils by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy


The potential of Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) for the analysis of semisolid fat and edible oil was demonstrated with butter, soybean oil, and lard as representative materials. Results of Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy analysis was compared with FTIR-PAS results. The PAS technique is simple and requires no sample preparation unlike ATR. Optimal PAS instrumental parameters for obtaining quality spectra are a scanning speed of 5 kHz, number of scans of 256 scans/sample, and a resolution of 4 cm−1. The PAS spectra of soybean oil and lard are similar because they have similar functional groups. Results for soybean oil compare well with those available in the literature. The ATR spectra of butter were better than those from its PAS counterpart. Functional groups corresponding to vibration mode and intensity are provided for soybean oil and lard.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Sedman, J., F.J. van de Voort, and A.A. Ismail, Application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy in Edible-Oil Analysis, in New Techniques and Applications in Lipid Analysis, edited by R.E. McDonald and M.M. Mossoba, AOCS Press, Champaign, 1997, pp. 283–324.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Guillén, M.D., and N. Cabo, Infrared Spectroscopy in the Study of Edible Oils and Fats, J. Sci. Food Agric. 75:1–11 (1997).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Lavine, B.K., Chemometrics, Anal. Chem. 70:209R-228R (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Skoog, D.A., F.J., Holler, and T.A. Nieman, Applications of Infrared Spectrometry, in Principles of Instrumental Analysis, 5th edn., Harcourt Brace College Publishers, Philadelphia, 1998, pp. 404–428.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Jiang, E.Y., W.J. McCarthy, and D.L. Dracho, FT-IR PAS: a Versatile Tool for Spectral Depth Profiling Chemical Analysis, Spectroscopy 13:21–40 (1998).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Jiang, E.Y., and P.A. Palmer, Comparison of Phase Rotation, Phase Spectrum, and Two-Dimensional Correlation Methods in Step-scan Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectral Depth Profiling, Anal. Chem. 69:1931–1935 (1997).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Rosencwaig, A., Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Wiley Interscience, New York, 1980, pp. 93–124.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Letzelter, N.S., R.H. Wilson, A.D. Jones, and G. Sinnaeve, Quantitative Determination of the Composition of Individual Pea Seeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, J. Sci. Food Agric. 67:239–245 (1995).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. van de Voort, F.R., J. Sedman, and G. Emo, A Rapid FTIR Quality Control Method for Fat and Moisture Determination in Butter, Food Res. Int. 25:193–198 (1992).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Griffiths, P.R., and J.A. de Haseth, in Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1986, pp. 248–283.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Che Man, Y.B., and G. Setiowaty, Determination of Anisidine Value in Thermally Oxidized Palm Olein by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 76:243–247 (1999).

    Google Scholar 

  12. Guillén, M.D., and N. Cabo, Characterization of Edible Oils and Lard by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Relationships Between Composition and Frequency of Concrete Bands in the Fingerprint Region, ——Ibid. 74:1281–1286 (1997).

    Google Scholar 

  13. Cooper, E.A., and K. Knutson, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Investigations of Protein Structure, Pharm. Biotechnol. 7:101–143 (1995).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Chen, M., and J. Irudayaraj, Sampling Technique for Cheese Analysis by FTIRSpectroscopy, J. Food Sci. 63:96–99 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Guillén, M.D., and N. Cabo, Relationships Between the Composition of Edible Oils and Lard and the Ratio of the Absorbance of Specific Bands of their Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra. Role of Some Bands in the Fingerprint Region, J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:1788–1793 (1998).

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Joseph Irudayaraj.

About this article

Cite this article

Yang, H., Irudayaraj, J. Characterization of semisolid fats and edible oils by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy. J Amer Oil Chem Soc 77, 291–295 (2000).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

Key Words

  • Attenuated total reflectance
  • butter
  • chemical characterization
  • food analysis
  • Fourier
  • transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy
  • lard
  • soybean oil