Skip to main content
Log in

The effects of a dietary oxidized oil on lipid metabolism in rats

  • Published:
Lipids

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of a dietary oxidized oil on lipid metabolism in rats, particularly the desaturation of fatty acids. Two groups of rats were fed initially for a period of 35 d diets containing 10% of either fresh oil or thermally treated oil (150°C, 6d). The dietary fats used were markedly different for lipid peroxidation products (peroxide value: 94.5 vs. 3.1 meq O2/kg; thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances: 230 vs. 7 μmol/kg) but were equalized for their fatty acid composition by using different mixtures of lard and safflower oil and for tocopherol concentrations by individual supplementation with dl-α-tocopherol acetate. In the second period which lasted 16 d, the same diets were supplemented with 10% linseed oil to study the effect of the oxidized oil on the desaturation of α-linolenic acid. During the whole period, all the rats were fed identical quantities of diet by a restrictive feeding system in order to avoid a reduced food intake in the rats fed the oxidized oil. Body weight gains and food conversion rates were only slightly lower in the rats fed the oxidized oil compared to the rats fed the fresh oil. Hence, the effects of lipid peroxidation products could be studied without a distortion by a marked reduced food intake and growth. To assess the rate of fatty acid desaturation, the fatty acid composition of liver and heart total lipids and phospholipids was determined and ratios between product and precursor of individual desaturation reactions were calculated. Rats fed the oxidized oil had reduced ratios of 20∶4n−6/18∶2n−6, 20∶5n−3/18∶3n−3, 20∶4n−6/20∶3n−6, and 22∶6n−3/22∶5n−3 in liver phospholipids and reduced ratios of 20∶4n−6/18∶2n−6, 22∶5n−3/18∶3n−3, and 22∶6n−3/18∶3n−3 in heart phospholipids. Those results suggest a reduced rate of desaturation of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid by microsomal Δ4-, Δ5-, and Δ6-desaturases. Furthermore, liver total lipids of rats fed the oxidized oil exhibited a reduced ratio between total monounsaturated fatty acids and total saturated fatty acids, suggesting a reduced Δ9-desaturation. Besides those effects, the study observed a slightly increased liver weight, markedly reduced tocopherol concentrations in liver and plasma, reduced lipid concentrations in plasma, and an increased ratio between phospholipids and cholesterol in the liver. Thus, the study demonstrates that feeding an oxidized oil causes several alterations of lipid and fatty acid metabolism which might be of great physiologic relevance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

Abbreviations

DHA:

docosahexaenoic acid

EPA:

eicosapentaenoic acid

MUFA:

monounsaturated fatty acids

POV:

peroxide value

PUFA:

polyunsaturated fatty acids

SFA:

saturated fatty acids

TBARS:

thiobarbituric acidreactive substances

References

  1. Hochgraf, E., Mokady, S., and Cogan, U. (1997) Dietary Oxidized Linoleic Acid Modifies Lipid Composition of Rat Liver Microsomes and Increases Their Fluidity, J. Nutr. 127, 681–686.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Borsting, C.F., Engberg, R.M., Jakobsen, K., Jensen, S.K., and Andersen, J.O. (1994) Inclusion of Oxidized Fish Oil in Mink Diets. 1. The Influence on Nutrient Digestibility and Fatty-Acid Accumulation in Tissues, J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 72, 132–145.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Hayam, I., Cogan, U., and Mokady, S. (1993) Dietary Oxidized Oil Enhances the Activity of (Na+K+)ATPase and Acetylcholinesterase and Lowers the Fluidity of Rat Erythrocyte Membrane, J. Nutr. Biochem. 4, 563–568.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. D’Aquino, M., Di Felice, M., and Tomassi, G. (1985) Vitamin E Status and Effects of Thermoxidized Fats on Structural Alpha-Tocopherol and Fatty Acid of Different Rat Tissues, Nutr. Rep. Int. 32, 1179–1186.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Blanc, P., Revol, A., and Pacheco, H. (1992) Chronic Ingestion of Oxidized Oil in the Rat: Effect on Lipid Composition and on Cytidylyl Transferase Activity in Various Tissues, Nutr. Res. 12, 833–844.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Yoshida, H., and Kajimoto, G. (1989) Effect of Dietary Vitamin E on the Toxicity of Autoxidized Oil to Rats, Ann. Nutr. Metab. 33, 153–161.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Corcos Benedetti, P., D’Aquino, M., Di Felice, M., Gentili, V., Tagliamonte, B., and Tomassi, G. (1987) Effects of a Fraction of Thermally Oxidized Soy Bean Oil on Growing Rats, Nutr. Rep. Int. 36, 387–401.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Lamboni, C., Sebedio, J.L., and Perkins, E.G. (1998) Cyclic Fatty Acid Monomers from Dietary Heated Fats Affect Rat Liver Enzyme Activity, Lipids 33, 675–681.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Liu, J.-F., and Huang, C.-J. (1996) Dietary Oxidized Frying Oil Enhances Tissue α-Tocopherol Depletion and Radioisotope Tracer Excretion in Vitamin E-Deficient Rats, J. Nutr. 126, 2227–2235.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Huang, C.-J., Cheung, N.-S., and Lu, V.-R. (1988) Effects of Deteriorated Frying Oil and Dietary Protein Levels on Liver Microsomal Enzymes in Rats, J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 65, 1796–1803.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. Eder, K., and Kirchgessner, M. (1998) The Effect of a Moderately Oxidized Soybean Oil on Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Low-Density Lipoproteins at Low and High Dietary Vitamin E Levels, J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 78, 230–243.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Eder, K., and Kirchgessner, M. (1998) Vitamin E Status and Tissue Fatty Acid Composition in Rats Fed a Moderately Oxidized Soybean Oil at Low or High Vitamin E Supply, J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 79, 80–91.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Eder, K., and Kirchgessner, M. (1998) The Effect of Dietary Vitamin E Supply and a Moderately Oxidized Oil on Activities of Hepatic Lipogenic Enzymes in Rats, Lipids 33, 277–283.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Stangl, G.I., Reichlmayr-Lais, A.M., Eder, K., and Kirchgessner, M. (1993) Effect of Different Dietary Oils on Liver Fatty Acid Composition of Rats, J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 70, 207–215.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. Hara, A., and Radin, N.S. (1978) Lipid Extraction of Tissues with a Low-Toxicity Solvent, Anal. Biochem. 90, 420–426.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Eder, K., Reichlmayr-Lais, A.M., and Kirchgessner, M. (1992) Simultaneous Determination of Amounts of Major Phospholipid Classes and Their Fatty Acid Composition in Erythrocyte Membranes Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Gas Chromatography, J. Chromatogr. 598, 33–42.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Morrison, W.R., and Smith, L.M. (1964) Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters and Dimethylacetals from Lipids with Boron Fluoride-Methanol, J. Lipid Res. 5, 600–608.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Eder, K., and Kirchgessner, M. (1996) The Effect of Dietary Fat on Activities of Lipogenic Enzymes in Liver and Adipose Tissue of Zinc Adequate and Zinc-Deficient Rats, J. Nutr. Biochem. 7, 190–195.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. Balz, M.K., Schulte, E., and Thier, H.P. (1993) Simultaneous Determination of α-Tocopheryl Acetate, Tocopherols and Tocotrieols by HPLC with Fluorescence Detection in Foods, Fat Sci. Technol. 95, 215–220.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. De Hoff, J.L., Davidson, L.H., and Kritchevsky, V. (1978) An Enzymatic Assay for Determining Free and total Cholesterol in Tissue, Clin. Chem. 24, 433–435.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. O’Dell, B.L., Browning, J.D., and Reeves, P.G. (1987) Zinc Deficiency Increases the Osmotic Fragility of Rat Erythrocytes, J. Nutr. 117, 1883–1889.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. Chang, S.S., Peterson, R., and Ho, C.T. (1978) Chemical Reactions Involved in the Deep-Fat Frying of Foods, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 55, 718–727.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Kanazawa, K., Kanazawa, E., and Natake, M. (1985) Uptake of Secondary Autoxidation Products of Linoleic Acid by the Rat, Lipids 20, 412–419.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  24. Findlay, G.M., Draper, H.H., and Bergan, J.G. (1970) Metabolism of 1-14C-Methyl Linoleate Hydroperoxide in the Rabbit, Lipids 5, 970–975.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. Oarada, M., Miyazawa, Z., and Kaneda, T. (1986) Distribution of 14C After Oral Administration of (U−14C) Labeled Methyl Linoleate Hydroperoxides and Their Secondary Oxidation Products in Rats, Lipids 21, 150–154.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Valenzuela, A. (1991) The Biological Significance of Malondialdehyde Determination in the Assessment of Tissue Oxidative Stress, Life Sci. 48, 301–309.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. Liu, J.-F., and Huang, C.-J. (1995) Tissue α-Tocopherol Retention in Male Rats Is Compromised by Feeding Diets Containing Oxidized Frying Oil, J. Nutr. 125, 3071–3080.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. Leyton, J., Drury, P.J., and Crawford, M.A. (1987) Differential Oxidation of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids in vivo in the Rat, Br. J. Nutr. 57, 383–393.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. Cunnane, S.C., McAdoo, K.R., and Prohaska, J.R. (1986) Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Organs from Copper-Deficient Mice, J. Nutr. 116, 1248–1256.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. Cunnane, S.C., and McAdoo, K.R. (1987) Iron Intake Influences Essential Fatty Acid and Lipid Composition of Rat Plasma and Erythrocytes, J. Nutr. 117, 1514–1519.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  31. Osada, K., Kodama, T., Minehira, K., Yamada, K., and Sugano, M. (1996) Dietary Protein Modifies Oxidized Cholesterol-Induced Alterations of Linoleic Acid and Cholesterol Metabolism in Rats, J. Nutr. 126, 1635–1643.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. Brenner, R.R. (1989) Factors Influencing Fatty Acid Chain Elongation and Desaturation, in The Role of Fats in Human Nutrition (Vergroesen, A.J., and Crawford, M., eds.), pp. 45–79, Academic Press, London.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Flickinger, B.D., McCusker, R.H., Jr., and Perkins, E.G. (1997) The Effects of Cyclic Fatty Acid Monomers on Cultured Porcine Endothelial Cells, Lipids 32, 925–933.

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. Engberg, R.M., and Borsting, C.F. (1994) Inclusion of Oxidized Fish Oil in Mink Diets. 2. The Influence on Performance and Health Considering Histopathological, Clinical-Chemical, and Haematological Indices, J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr. 72, 146–157.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. Korn, E.D. (1966) Structure of Biological Membranes, Science 153, 1491–1498.

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. Lio, T., and Yoden, K. (1988) Fluorescence Formation from Hydroperoxide of Phosphatidylcholine with Amino Compound, Lipids 23, 65–67.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Klaus Eder.

About this article

Cite this article

Eder, K. The effects of a dietary oxidized oil on lipid metabolism in rats. Lipids 34, 717–725 (1999). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-999-0418-0

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11745-999-0418-0

Keywords

Navigation