, Volume 33, Issue 10, pp 981–984 | Cite as

Tomato lycopene and low density lipoprotein oxidation: A human dietary intervention study

  • Sanjiv Agarwal
  • A. Venketeshwer RaoEmail author


Increase in low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is hypothesized to be causally associated with increasing risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In recent epidemiological studies, tissue and serum levels of lycopene, a carotenoid available from tomatoes, have been found to be inversely related to risk of coronary heart disease. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of lycopene on LDL oxidation in 19 healthy human subjects. Dietary lycopene was provided using tomato juice, spaghetti sauce, and tomato oleoresin for a period of 1 wk each. Blood samples were collected at the end of each treatment. Serum lycopene was extracted and measured by high-performance liquid chromatography using an absorbance detector. Serum LDL was isolated by precipitation with buffered heparin, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes (CD) were measured to estimate LDL oxidation. Both methods, to measure LDL oxidation LDL-TBARS and LDL-CD, were in good agreement with each other. Dietary supplementation of lycopene significantly increased serum lycopene levels by at least twofold. Although there was no change in serum cholesterol levels (total, LDL, or high-density lipoprotein), serum lipid peroxidation and LDL oxidation were significantly decreased. These results may have relevance for decreasing the risk for coronary heart disease.


Coronary Heart Disease Carotenoid Lycopene Conjugate Diene Healthy Human Subject 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



butyrated hydroxytoluene


conjugated dienes


high-density lipoprotein


low density lipoprotein


thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Brown, M.S., and Goldstein, J. (1983) Lipoprotein Metabolism in the Macrophage, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 52, 223–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Steinberg, D., and Witztum, J.L. (1990) Lipoproteins and Atherogenesis, J. Am. Med. Assoc., 264, 3047–3052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Catheart, M.K., Morel, D.W., and Chisolm, G.M. (1985) Monocytes and Neutrophils Oxidize Low Density Lipoproteins Making It Cytotoxic, J. Leukocyte Biol. 38, 341–350.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hiramatsu, K., Rosen, H., Heineckle, J.W., Wolfbauer, G., and Chait, A. (1987) Superoxide Initiates Oxidation of Low Density Lipoprotein by Human Monocytes, Arteriosclerosis 7, 55–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Witztum, J.L. (1994) The Oxidation Hypothesis of Atherosclerosis, Lancet 344, 793–795.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Esterbauer, H. (1993) Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Lipid-Peroxidation Products, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 57 (suppl.) 779s-786s.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hallwell, B., and Gutteridge, J.M. (1984) Lipid Peroxidation, Oxygen Radicals, Cell Damage, and Antioxidant Therapy, Lancet 1, 1396–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jialal, I., and Devaraj, S. (1996) Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation, Antioxidants, and Atherosclerosis: A Clinical Biochemistry Perspective, Clin. Chem. 42, 498–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rimm, E.B., Stampfer, M.J., Ascherio, A., Giovannucci, E., Colditz, G.A., and Willett, W.C. (1993) Vitamin E Consumption and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, New Engl. J. Med. 328, 1450–1456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kohlmeir, L., Kark, J.D., Gomez-Gracia, E., Martin, B.C., Steck, S.E., Kardinaal, A.F.M., Ringstad, J., Thamm, M., Masaev, V., Riemersma, R., Martin-Moreno, J.M., Huttunen, J.K., and Kok, F.J. (1997) Lycopene and Myocardial Infarction Risk in the EURAMIC Study, Am. J. Epidemiol. 146, 618–626.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gomez-Aracena, J., Sloots, L., Graciarodriguez, A., Vantveer, P., Gomez-Garcia, C., Garciaalcantara, A., Martin-Moreno, J.M., Kok, F.J., and Navajas, J.F.C. (1997) Antioxidants in Adipose Tissue and Myocardial Infarction in a Mediterranean Area: the EURAMIC Study in Malaga, Nutr. Metab. Cardiovascul. Disease 7, 376–382.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kristenson, M., Zieden, B., Kucinskiene, Z., Elinder, L.S., Bergdahl, B., Elwing, B., Abaravicius, A., Razinkoviene, L., Calkauskas, H., and Olsson, A. (1997) Antioxidant State and Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease in Lithuanian and Swedish Men: Concomitant Cross Sectional Study of Men Aged 50, Br. Med. J. 314, 629–633.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rao, A.V., and Agarwal, S. (1998) Role of Lycopene as Antioxidant Carotenoid in the Prevention of Chronic Diseases: A Review, Nutr. Res., in press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    DiMascio, P., Kaiser, S., and Sies, H. (1989) Lycopene as the most Effective Biological Carotenoid Singlet Oxygen Quencher, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 274, 532–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Miller, N.J., Sampson, J., Candeias, L.P., Bramley, P.M., and Rice-Evans, C.A. (1996) Antioxidant Activities of Carotenes and Xanthophylls, FEBS Lett. 384, 240–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rao, A.V., and Agarwal, S. (1998) Effect of Diet and Smoking on Serum Lycopene and Lipid Peroxidation, Nutr. Res 18, 713–721.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stahl, W., Schwarz, W., Sundquist, A.R., and Sies, H. (1992) cis-trans Isomers of Lycopene and β-carotene Human Serum and Tissues, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 294, 173–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1980) AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wieland, H., and Seidel, D. (1983) A Simple Specific Method for Precipitation of Low Density Lipoproteins, J. Lipid Res. 24, 904–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Allain, C.A., Poon, L.S., Chan, C.S.G., Richmond, W., and Fu, P.C. (1974) Enzymatic Determination of Total Serum Cholesterol, Clin. Chem. 20, 470–474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jentzsch, A.M., Bachmann, H., Furst, P. and Biesalski, H.K. (1996) Improved Analysis of Malondialdehyde in Human Body Fluids, Free Radical. Biol. Med. 20, 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Draper, H.H., Squires, E.J., Mahmoodi, H., Wu, J., Agarwal, S., and Hadley, M. (1993) A Comparative Evaluation of Thiobarbituric Acid Methods for the Determination of Malondialdehyde in Biological Materials, Free. Radical Biol. Med., 15, 353–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ahotupa, M., Ruutu, M., and Mantyla, E. (1996) Simple Methods of Quantifying Oxidation Products and Antioxidant Potential of Low Density Lipoproteins, Clin. Biochem. 29, 139–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stahl, W., and Sies, H. (1996) Lycopene: A Biologically Important Carotenoid for Humans? Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 336, 1–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ratkowsky, D.A., Evans, M.A., and Alldredge, J.R. (1993) Cross-Over Experiments: Design, Analysis and Application, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gärtner, C., Stahl, W., and Sies, H. (1997) Lycopene Is More Bioavailable from Tomato Paste Than from Fresh Tomatoes, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 66, 116–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Klienveld, H.A., Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M., Stalenhoef, A.H.F., and Demacker, P.N.M. (1992) Improved Measurement of Low-Density Lipoprotein Susceptibility to Copper-Induced Oxidation: Application of a Short Procedure for Isolating Low-Density Lipoprotein, Clin. Chem. 38, 2066–2072.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Väisänen, S., Gävert, J., Julkunen, A., Voutilainen, E., and Penttilä, I. (1992) Contents of Apolipoprotein A-I, A-II and B of the Human Serum Fractions for High-Density and Low-Density Lipoproteins Prepared by Common Precipitation Methods, Scand. J. Clin. Invest. 52, 853–862.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Esterbauer, H., Striegl, G., Puhl, H., Obrreither, S., Rotheneder, M., El Saadani, M., and Jurgens, G. (1989) The Role of Vitamin E and Carotenoids in Preventing Low Density Lipoprotein, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 570, 254–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Boyd, N.F., and McGuire, V. (1990) Evidence of Lipid Peroxidation in Premenopausal Women with Mammographic Dysplasia, Cancer Lett. 50, 31–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mukai, F.H., and Goldstein, B.D. (1975) Mutagenicity of Malondialdehyde, a Decomposition Product of Peroxidized Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Science 191, 868–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pincemail, J. (1995) Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Human Disease, in Analysis of Free Radicals in Biological Systems (Favier, A.E., Cadet, J., Kalyanaraman, B., Fontecave, M., and Pierre, J.-L., eds.) pp. 83–98, Birkhäuser Verlag Basel.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Steinberg, D., Parthasarathy, S., Carew, T.E., Khoo, J.C., and Witztum, J.L. (1989) Beyond Cholesterol: Modifications of Low Density Lipoproteins That Increase Its Atherogenicity, N. Engl. J. Med. 320, 915–924.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Suber, A., Heimendinger, J., Kreb-Smith, S., Patterson, B., Kessler, R., and Pivonka, E. (1992) 5-a-Day for Better Health: A Baseline Study of American's Fruit and Vegetable Consumption, National Cancer Institute, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Health Canada (1992) Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating, Ministry of Supply and Services Canada, Cat. No. H39-253/1992E, Ottawa.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© AOCS Press 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations