Lipids

, Volume 52, Issue 10, pp 803–822 | Cite as

Dietary Fatty Acid Composition Modulates Obesity and Interacts with Obesity-Related Genes

Review Article

Abstract

The prevalence of obesity is skyrocketing worldwide. The scientific evidence has associated obesity risk with many independent factors including the quality of dietary fat and genetics. Dietary fat exists as the main focus of dietary guidelines targeting obesity reduction. To prevent/minimize the adipogenic effect of dietary fatty acids (FA), intakes of long-chain saturated- and trans-FA should be reduced and substituted with unsaturated FA. The optimal proportions of dietary unsaturated FA are yet to be defined, along with a particular emphasis on the need to achieve a balanced ratio of n-3:n-6 polyunsaturated FA and to increase monounsaturated FA consumption at the expense of saturated FA. However, inter-individual variability in weight loss in response to a dietary intervention is evident, which highlights the importance of exploring gene–nutrient interactions that can further modulate the risk for obesity development. The quality of dietary fat was found to modulate obesity development by interacting with genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, adipogenesis, and the endocannabinoid system. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the effect of the quality of dietary fat on obesity phenotype and obesity-related genes. The evidence is not only supporting the modulatory effect of fat quality on obesity development but also presenting a number of interactions between obesity-related genes and the quality of dietary fat. The identified gene–FA interaction may have a clinical importance and holds a promise for the possibility of using genetically targeted dietary interventions to reduce obesity risk in the future.

Keywords

Dietary fatty acids Fat quality Obesity Body composition Obesity-related gene Gene–diet interaction 

Abbreviations

11β-HSD1

11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1

BMI

Body mass index

C/EBP-α

1 CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-α

FA

Fatty acids

MCFA

Medium-chain fatty acid

MCT

Medium-chain triglyceride

MUFA

Monounsaturated fatty acid

n-3 PUFA

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid

n-6 PUFA

Omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid

PPARα

Proliferator activated receptor-alpha

PPARδ

Proliferator activated receptor-delta

PPARγ

Proliferator activated receptor-gamma

PUFA

Polyunsaturated fatty acid

SCAT

Subcutaneous adipose tissue

SFA

Saturated fatty acid

SREBP1

Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1

FTO

Fat mass and obesity-associated gene

VAT

Visceral adipose tissue

WC

Waist circumference

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© AOCS 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Food and Human Nutritional SciencesUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Richardson Centre for Functional Foods and NutraceuticalsUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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